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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: R-Bodies ; Kappa particles ; Free-living hydrogen bacteria ; Induction ; Electron microscopy ; Chemical composition ; Defective prophages ; Plasmids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract R-Bodies have been found in a recently isolated pseudomonas-like free-living hydrogen oxidizing bacterium. Their isolation, fine structure and chemical composition are described and compared with the R-bodies from the kappa particles (Caedobacter), obligate endosymbionts of Paramecium aurelia. The 2K 1 R-bodies exhibited essential characteristics of the kappa R-bodies; however, their size and some other structural aspects proved that they represent a new type of R-bodies. The presence of phage tail-like particles in cells induced with Mitomycin C is in favour of the hypothesis that the R-bodies might be coded by defective prophages, or by extrachromosomal elements.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Micromorphology ; Gram-negative hydrogen bacteria ; Flagellation ; Flagellar fine structure ; Pili
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The cell morphology, the arrangement and fine structure of flagella and the piliation of the following Gram-negative aerobic hydrogen bacteria have been studied: Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes paradoxus, Alcaligenes ruhlandii, Pseudomonas flava, Pseudomonas pseudoflava, Pseudomonas palleronii, Pseudomonas facilis, Aquaspirillum autotrophicum, Paracoccus denitrificans, Corynebacterium autotrophicum, and strains MA 2 and SA 35. The identity of the bacteria was examined by their substrate spectra and type of flagellation. Three types of flagellar fine structure were differentiated. The presence of pili was noted in strains of Alcaligenes paradoxus, Pseudomonas flava, P. pseudoflava, P. palleronii, and P. facilis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Ultrastructure ; Micromorphology ; Gram-negative ; Hydrogen bacteria ; Cell envelope ; Cytoplasmic inclusions ; Membranes ; Mesosomes ; Glycogen ; Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate ; Cell wall types
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The fine structure of the cell envelope, of membrane systems and of cytoplasmic inclusions of Gram-negative aerobic hydrogen bacteria has been studied. The results have been tabulated, and three main groups could be recognized: Group 1: Alcaligenes eutrophus, A. paradoxus, A. ruhlandii, Pseudomonas facilis, P. flava, P. pseudoflava, P. palleronii, and Aquaspirillum autotrophicum; Group 2: “Corynebacterium” autotrophicum and strains MA 2 and SA 35; Group 3: Paracoccus denitrificans. Special structures related to the chemoautotrophic way of life of the hydrogen bacteria were not observed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Aquaspirillum autotrophicum ; Hydrogen bacterium ; Growth ; Chemolithoautotrophy ; Particulate hydrogenase ; Induction ; Repression ; Natural habitats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Aquaspirillum autrotrophicum, an aerobic hydrogen bacterium recently isolated from an eutrophic freshwater lake, was characterized physiologically. It grew autotrophically in a fermenter with a doubling time of 4 h. Heterotrophic growth was faster. pH-Optimum ranged from 5.0–7.5, temperature optimum was about 28° C. During autotrophic growth about 10 moles hydrogen were consumed per 1 mole carbon dioxide fixed. Hydrogenase activity is inducible. CO2 did not enhance the oxy-hydrogen reaction by intact cells. The hydrogenase activity was localized in the particulate fraction. The hydrogenase reduced methylene blue and phenazine methosulfate; pyridine nucleotides were not reduced. In cell-free extracts, hydrogenase was sensitive to oxygen. Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase was present in autotrophically-grown cells and absent from heterotrophically grown cells. Hydrogenase induction in heterotrophically-grown cells followed parabolic kinetics. Oxygen and D-gluconate repressed hydrogenase synthesis, whereas citrate, DL-lactate and pyruvate stimulated its formation. The repressive effect was delayed. The results suggest that the control of hydrogenase synthesis occurred at the transcriptional level, and that mRNA coding for the hydrogenase had a relatively long life span. D-Gluconate was degraded via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, the enzymes of which were constitutively formed. Enzymes of the pentosephosphate and Embden-Meyerhof pathways (except phosphofructokinase) were present, too. Hydrogen did not inhibit heterotrophic growth. The possible competitive advantage of the physiological properties described with regard to the natural habitat was discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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