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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Adrenal zona glomerulosa ; Ultrastructure ; Sodium depletion ; Sodium loading ; Sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effects of alterations in sodium status upon the morphology of the adrenal zona glomerulosa in sheep have been examined qualitatively and quantitatively, using lightand electron microscopy, and correlated with functionally related biochemical data. With severe sodium depletion induced by parotid-cannula drainage, there was mitotic activity throughout the zona glomerulosa, and glandular cells showed striking ultrastructural changes. These changes particularly affected mitochondria, which were enlarged, rounded and showed replacement of their normal lamelliform cristae by thin elongated cristal elements and bundles of tubular “rod-like” structures. Quantitative morphometric studies showed an increase in the volumes of zona glomerulosa cells, nuclei, mitochondria, smooth and granular endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles. In contrast, with dietary sodium loading, zona glomerulosa cells appeared shrunken and showed cytoplasmic lipid accumulation; mitochondria and other organelles were not significantly altered. The correlation of the ultrastructural cytological alterations in zona glomerulosa cells in sodium-depleted sheep with raised blood aldosterone levels suggests that such morphologic changes reflect a heightened capacity of these cells for aldosterone biosynthesis and secretion. These changes may also account for the increased sensitivity of the zona glomerulosa to aldosterone-producing stimuli during sodium deficiency.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Peripolar cells ; Juxtaglomerular apparatus ; Newborn sheep ; Dexamethasone ; Ultrastructure ; Cytoplasmic granules
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the renal juxtaglomerular region of newborn sheep, it was found that glomerular peripolar cells and their granules were very much larger than those found in fetal lambs or adult sheep. Similar peripolar cell hypertrophy was triggered in fetal lambs treated in utero with intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone. Ultrastructurally, granules of peripolar cells from newborn lambs resembled closely the enlarged zymogen granules described in the pancreas of newborn rats. Such peripolar cell hypertrophy may reflect a functional adaptation of the kidney to immediate postnatal life.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Atrial appendage ; Atrial-specific granules ; Atrial natriuretic polypeptides ; Exocytosis ; Ultrastructure ; Rat (Sprague-Dawley)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Atrial appendage cardiocytes of mammals, including man, contain multiple cytoplasmic granules that vary in number in different physiological states. Using morphologic and comprehensive morphometric techniques, these granules were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats following dehydration for 5 days, volume-loading by substituting 1% NaCl as drinking water for 7 days, unilateral nephrectomy plus volume-loading for 7 days, and in late term pregnant animals (18–20 days; term ≈21 days). Although principally located in the paranuclear region, granules were observed throughout the sarcoplasm. Cytological features indicative of synthetic activity and granule formation were readily apparent in all groups with the exception of pregnant rats where they were infrequently observed. Granule contents were released by exocytosis and observed in the right appendage of control, dehydrated and nephrectomy/volume-loaded groups and left appendage of volumeloaded animals. Exocytosis was not observed in pregnant animals. By point counting, the proportional volume of cardiocytes occupied by granules (V v ) in controls was significantly greater for right than for left appendage (2.12±0.22% vs 1.29±0.16%; mean±SEM;p〈0.05). A significantly similar difference was found for nephrectomy/volume-loaded animals. There was no significant difference inV v for right appendage between the control and experimental groups; for left appendage there was a significant increase inV v to 2.42±0.09% (p〈0.05) for volume-loaded animals only. Estimation of the maximum diameter of granule profiles in control animals was 238±9 nm and 230±6 nm for right and left appendages, respectively. The profile diameters in the left appendages of dehydrated (202±9 nm) and pregnant (200±7 nm) animals were significantly (p〈0.05) less than those of the control animals. The morphometric findings did not correlate with predictions based upon published biochemical data. In the course of this study, a previously unreported bimembranous, circular to ovoid structure was observed in the cardiocyte sarcoplasm of all animals; the nature and function of this structure is unknown.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Endocarditis ; Staphylococcus ; Colonisation ; Morphology ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The initial colonization, byStaphylococcus aureus, of the catheter damaged aortic valve and aorta of the rabbit, was examined by light and electron microscopy at 15 min, 3 h and 24 h post inoculation (PI). At 15 min PI, the majority of bacteria (80%) were located on the lateral surfaces of the thrombic vegetations while 20% were attached directly to the connective tissue of the aortic valve and aorta in areas where the endothelial lining was disrupted. By 3 h the bacteria on the thrombic vegetations were covered by fibrin. At this time, the bacteria both within the vegetations and on the surface of the vasculature were undergoing multiplication to form small groups. The precipitation of thrombus around the bacteria attached to the surface of the aorta to form microscopic infected vegetations had occurred by 24 h PI. The colonizing bacteria did not elicit any phagocytic response. The colonization of the cardiovasculature byStaph. aureus did not necessarily require pre-existing vegetations.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Peripolar cells ; Juxtaglomerular apparatus ; Kallikrein ; Ultrastructure ; Mammals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Peripolar cells are granulated glomerular epithelial cells that form a cuff around the vascular pole of the glomerulus. Quantitation of these cells in 17 species of mammals (including man, several laboratory animals and a variety of other species) indicated that they were detectable by light microscopy in all but one of the mammals that were examined (the Australian hopping mouse). In adult mammals with detectable peripolar cells, the “peripolar cell index” (the percentage of randomly sectioned glomeruli that displayed peripolar cells in histological sections of kidney) ranged from 0.15 (for echidna) to 11.86 (for sheep). Newborn lambs and rats showed strikingly high values (23.30 and 10.76, respectively) compared with their adult counterparts. Using electron microscopy, peripolar cells were observed in all species that were examined, including the Australian hopping mouse. Morphologically, peripolar cells were similar in all species although their size and granule population varied. They showed a predominantly outer cortical glomerular distribution and a close anatomical relationship with the renin-containing myoepithelioid cells. These findings indicate that peripolar cells are present in a wide variety of species and support the view that such cells may play a significant role in the regulation of normal renal function.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Macula densa ; Intercellular spaces ; Ultrastructure ; Frusemide ; Tubulo-glomerular feedback ; Rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In situ drip-fixation of superficial glomeruli and tubules in the rat kidney verified the results obtained from high pressure perfusion fixation studies indicating that distinct spaces normally exist between the cells of the macula densa. Following treatment with frusemide these intercellular spaces between the macula densa cells became closed in both drip-fixed and perfusion-fixed kidneys. These findings suggest that the variability of extracellular compartmentation found in the macula densa is unlikely to be an artifact but most likely represents changes in the in vivo status of the macula densa.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 165 (1976), S. 249-266 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Stretch receptor ; Urodele amphibia ; Ultrastructure ; Physiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Non-encapsulated, fine beaded nerve endings were found histologically on some muscle fibres in a number of limb muscles in newts and axolotls. They were present in newt muscles that had been chronically de-efferented, and in which no efferent activity survived, and were therefore likely to be sensory. They were located only on muscle fibres on or near the outside surface of the muscle. These small-diameter muscle fibres were characterised histochemically by low lipid, SDH and phosphorylase content; ultrastructurally by low glycogen content, and relatively large myofilaments poorly delimited by a sparse SR. There were many of this type (Type 1) that did not support sensory endings. A few endings occurred on another larger-diameter type of fibre (Type 2) whose properties were opposite to those listed above for Type 1. There was virtually no specialization of muscle fibre structure beneath the sensory endings. Physiological experiments involving ramp-and-hold and sinusoidal stretch applied to the muscle whilst recording single-unit afferent responses in m.ext. dig. III of axolotls showed unit responses very similar to those known from muscle spindles, particularly those of the frog.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pregnancy ; Adrenal zona glomerulosa ; Juxtaglomerular apparatus ; Ultrastructure ; Sheep
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructural changes in the adrenal zona glomerulosa and renal juxtaglomerular apparatus have been examined during normal pregnancy in sheep. As pregnancy progressed, increasing numbers of cells in the adrenal zona glomerulosa displayed mitochondria with straight tubular “rod-like” structures replacing their normal lamelliform cristae; groups of cells showing these mitochondrial changes were predominantly located in the middle and superficial regions of the zona glomerulosa, but at all stages remained interspersed with cells with apparently normal mitochondria. In the same animals, the renal juxtaglomerular index was raised, reflecting an increase in renin storage, and juxtaglomerular myoepithelioid cells showed increased numbers of cytoplasmic granules, but no apparent increase in granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi profiles; there were no distinguishing morphological changes in juxtaglomerular peripolar cells. These findings provide morphologic evidence of stimulation of the adrenal zona glomerulosa in association with increased juxtaglomerular renin storage during pregnancy. The mitochondrial changes observed in an increasing proportion of cells in the zona glomerulosa closely resemble those seen in sodium-depleted animals, and may reflect the altered steroidogenic capacity of the adrenal gland in pregnant sheep. The finding of groups of cells displaying altered mitochondria lying next to cells with normal mitochondria suggests the presence of cells with different sensitivities to stimuli for aldosterone production or may indicate the presence of different cell types in the zona glomerulosa responding to different stimuli.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 389 (1982), S. 29-44 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 411 (1983), S. 105-124 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Keywords: Nuclear reactions
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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