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  • Silyl enol ethers  (4)
  • Pyrroles  (3)
  • Regioselectivity  (3)
  • Vinylcyclopropanes, donor-acceptor-substituted  (3)
  • 6H-1,2-Oxazines  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Vinylcyclopropanes, donor-acceptor-substituted ; Cyclopentenes ; Rearrangement ; 1,3-Zwitterions ; Solvent effect ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Donor-acceptor-substituted vinylcyclopropanes such as 1a, 3a, 5a, 5b, 7a, 9a, 9b, and 12a smoothly undergo thermal ring enlargement to functionalized cyclopentene derivatives 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 13 at relatively low temperatures (150-190°C) in good yields. This vinylcyclopropane-cyclopentene rearrangement proceeds with low (1a, 3a), moderate (9a, b) or high (7a, 12a) stereoselectivity. In the case of 7a and 12a almost complete retention of configuration with respect to the migrating (methoxy) (phenyl)-substituted carbon atom was observed. The definite mechanistic interpretation of these results is complicated by the stereoisomerization of the starting donor-acceptor-substituted vinylcyclopropanes which proceeds as competing reaction during ring enlargement. Nevertheless, all observations together, in particular the recorded solvent effects, support a stepwise mechanism of the rearrangement with a highly stabilized 1,3-zwitterionic species as common intermediate for cyclopropane stereoisomerization and ring enlargement.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: β-Formyl esters ; Aldol reactions ; Silyl enol ethers ; γ-Lactones ; Chelates ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Heteroatom-substituted aldehydes 3, 4, and 5 were subjected to Mukaiyama reactions with silyl enol ether 10. The reaction of the new trifluoromethyl-substituted aldehyde 3 with 10 afforded γ-lactone 11 with excellent trans selectivity. In contrast, the known benzyloxy-substituted aldehyde 4 and 10 provided γ-lactone 13 without any selectively in the presence of BF3 as the promoting Lewis acid; use of TiCl4 induced exclusive cis selectivity. Carbamoyl-substituted aldehyde 5 and silyl enol ether 10 were combined under different conditions, although good diastereoselectivity could not be achieved. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the electronic effects of the substituents and their ability to form chelates.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Cyclopropanecarboxylates, 2-siloxy ; Silyl enol ethers ; Diazoacetates ; [2+1] Cycloadditions ; Asymmetric catalysis ; Copper ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: By variation of the aryl substituents of silyl enol ethers 1a-e and 1f-k, the influence of their nucleophilicity on the stereochemical outcome of cyclopropanation reactions was studied. Using the neutral Schiff-base catalyst 2 · Cu(OAc)2, there was only a weak effect. On the other hand, with the cationic bisoxazoline complex 3· CuOTf a remarkable increase in the enantioselectivity was observed with more strongly electron-attracting substituents such as a trifluoromethyl or nitro group.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 6H-1,2-Oxazines ; Methoxyallene ; Nitroso alkene ; Hetero Diels-Alder reaction ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Regioselective hetero Diels-Alder reactions of in-situ generated nitroso alkenes 2-4 with methoxyallene derivatives 1 provide 4H-1,2-oxazines 5-7 with an exo-methylene group at C-5. These primary cycloadducts are smoothly transformed into conjugated 6H-1,2-oxazines 11-13 by base or acid catalysis. The bicylic nitroso alkene 17 and methoxyallene (1a) combine to give the tricyclic 1,2-oxazine 18, thus demonstrating that an exo-transition state is favoured in this [4+2] cycloaddition. The reaction of the sterically hindered methoxyallene 1h with nitrosostyrene affords the cycloadduct 22 in low yield. 22 is very likely formed by a two-step Diels-Alder reaction via a zwitterion. Allene derivatives lacking a methoxy group are not sufficiently reactive towards nitroso alkenes and do not provide 1,2-oxazines.
    Additional Material: 8 Tab.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines, transformations of ; Pyrroles ; Molybdenum, hexacarbonyl- ; 1,4-Dicarbonyl compounds ; Oximes ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A variety of 6-siloxy-substituted 5,6-dihydro-4H-1,2-oxazines (abbreviation: 1,2-oxazines) 1, 3 could be transformed into di- and trisubstituted pyrroles 2, 4 by means of molybdenum hexacarbonyl. The mechanism of this deoxygenating ring contraction is discussed. With two bicyclic 1,2-oxazines an acid-catalyzed fragmentation affording α-methylenecycloalkanones 7 has been observed, while other 1,2-oxazines rearrange in methanolic acid to give nitrones 9, 10. The desilylation of 6-siloxy-substituted 1,2-oxazines 1, 3 employing NEt3 · 3 HF is a very general and smooth process providing 6-hydroxy-1,2-oxazines 11, 12 or their corresponding acyclic tautomers 13, 14 in high yields. For two examples of 11 deoximations by use of formalin could be achieved with moderate efficiency giving 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds 15.
    Additional Material: 6 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Pyrenophorin ; (Z)-Jasmone ; 1,2-Oxazine ; Pheromones ; Pyrroles ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Methyl (E)-5-bromo-4-oxo-2-pentenoate (6) and the corresponding oxime 5 were prepared in high yields by starting from methyl levulinate (3). The novel nitrosoalkene 8, generated in situ from oxime 5, smoothly added to silyl enol ether 7 to give 1,2-oxazine 9 and nitrone 10 as byproduct. Methods are described transforming intermediate 9 into unsaturated diketo ester 11, or oximes 13, 15, and 18, which may serve as precursors of pyrenophorin. Reductive ring cleavage of 1,2-oxazine 9 with Raney nickel efficiently afforded the saturated diketo ester 19. Its intramolecular aldol reaction gave cyclopentenone derivative 20, which is a known precursor of (Z)-jasmone. Cycloaddition of methyl α-nitrosoacrylate to silyl enol ether 22 provided 1,2-oxazine 23. This compound was directly converted into the ant-trail pheromone 24 by hexacarbonylmolybdenum-promoted ring contraction.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 6H-1,2-Oxazines ; γ-Lactams ; Lewis acids ; Ring contraction ; Phosphite, trimethyl ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Unexpected Formation of γ-Lactams from 6H-1,2-Oxazines Promoted by Lewis AcidsThe reaction of 6H-1,2-oxazine 1 with trimethylsilyl cyanide in the presence of titanium tetrachloride provides α,β-unsaturated γ-lactam 3. Similarly, Lewis acid-promoted addition of trimethyl phosphite towards 1 affords a mixture of γ-lactams 8 and 9. The structure of 9 was established by X-ray analysis. A plausible mechanism for the formation of these γ-lactams by Lewis acid-induced ring contraction is proposed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines ; Hydrogenation, catalytic ; Amino alcohols ; γ-Amino acids ; Pyrroles ; γ-Lactams ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: While palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of 3-phenyl-6H-1,2-oxazine 1 produces primary amine 5 in a nitrogen-transposition reaction, the reductions of the related 1,2-oxazines 2, 10, and the 1,2-oxazin-6-one 3 afford the expected amino alcohols 4, 11, and the γ-amino acid 6, respectively, with low diastereoselectivites. In the presence of acetic acid 3 is reductively converted into γ-keto carboxylic acid 9 and 1 into the γ-lactam derivative 12 probably by a ring contraction to a nitrone intermediate. Raney nickel as the catalyst is able to transform 1,2-oxazine 7 bearing an exo-methylene unit into 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrole 13. The reaction of 6H-1,2-oxazine 1 with aluminium amalgam produces pyrrole 14 in moderate yield. Treatment of 1 with sodium in 2-propanol brings about its transformation into pyrrolidine derivative 15 together with pyrrole 14 and amino alcohol 4 as minor products. The chemoselectivity and stereoselectivity of these reductions are discussed including mechanistic proposals for the multistep processes involved.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: 1,2-Oxazines, lithiated ; Deprotonation ; Alkylation ; Deuteration ; Regioselectivity ; Calculations, MNDO ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 5,6-Dihydro-5-methylene-4H-1,2-oxazine 1 is smoothly converted by n-butyllithium into 1-Li which reacts with electrophiles such as D2O, carbonyl compounds, dimethyl sulfide, or an azo diester to give the γ-adducts 4a-4f. On the other hand, alkylation of 1-Li occurs exclusively at C-4 of the heterocycle and provides the α-adducts 3g and 3h. These reactions require the activation of 1-Li by tetramethylethylenediamine. Treatment with allyl bromide and methyl acrylate affords mixtures of regioisomers 3 and 4. 1,2-Oxazine 5 with a conjugated C = C bond is less acidic than 1 but is also converted into 1-Li, whilst compound 6, lacking the 6-methoxy group, is not deprotonated under standard conditions. The dianion of 1,2-oxazine 7 is generated by employing an excess of n-butyllithium. This dianion displays a similar regiochemical behavior as 1-Li. Deuterium is exclusively incorporated into the γ-position to give product 8, while methylation occurs at C-4 to produce 9. 1,2-Oxazine 3g with an additional 4-methyl group can also be metalated and affords γ-adducts 10 and 11 upon reaction with D2O or acetone. Treatment with methyl iodide gives a 3:1 mixture of regioisomers 12 and 13. Deuteration of 1,2-oxazines 14 and 16 bearing a 3-CF3 or 3-CO2Et substituent requires more severe deprotonation conditions to provide the γ-adducts 15 and 17 in moderate yields. MNDO calculations of neutral 1,2-oxazines, the corresponding carbanions, and the lithium compounds allow an insight into the structure and charge distribution of these species, and also an estimation of the relative acidities. The regioselectivity of reactions of 1-Li is discussed on the basis of these semiempirical calculations and comparison with related ambident nucleophiles.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: Chromium complexes ; Carbene complexes ; 1,3-Dienes, electron-deficient ; [2 + 1] Cycloadditions ; Vinylcyclopropanes, donor-acceptor-substituted ; Diastereoselectivity ; Regioselectivity ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Thermal reactions of Fischer carbene complex 1 with trisubstituted electron-deficient 1,3-dienes 7, 8, 23, 25, 32, and 35 provided highly substituted vinylcyclopropanes in good yields. The carbene transfer proceeds highly regioselectively favouring cyclopropanation of the double bond not bearing the ester function. In addition, the diastereoselectivity is generally fairly high in preference of cyclopropanes with the methoxy group cis-positioned with respect to the olefin moiety. The reaction of methylcarbene complex 2 with diene ester 8 displays inversed regioselectivity. These observations are discussed together with solvent effects, and a mechanistic rationale is presented.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
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