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  • Whole blood assay  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-055X
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Allgemeinnarkose ; Periphere Immunzellen ; Vollbluttest ; Zytokine ; Key words General anaesthesia ; Peripheral immune cells ; Whole blood assay ; Cytokines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Objective: Anaesthetic agents are believed to have an adverse effect on human immune defense mechanisms. We investigated changes in peripheral immune cell numbers such as natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and differences in cytokine production after stimulation with different mitogens before and during narcosis. Methods: We studied 30 patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. Stimulatory experiments were performed with the mitogens lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and inactivated Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). Results: During general anaesthesia with fentanyl, thiopental, isoflurane and nitrous oxide there was a significant decrease of circulating NK cells in the peripheral blood accompanied by a significant increase of B cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes. We detected a significant anesthesia-associated increase of interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) synthesis after stimulation with different mitogens while interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 protein did not change significantly. After the beginning of surgery CD8-positive cells showed a return to control values and NK cell number increased slightly. Conclusion: These findings suggest that general anaesthesia interferes with immune cell number and immune cell response. This may explain the clinically well-recognized disturbance of human immunity after surgery and general anaesthesia.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Fragestellung: Die bei der Allgemeinnarkose eingesetzten Pharmaka stehen im Verdacht, ungünstige Einflüsse auf das menschliche Immunsystem auszuüben. Wir untersuchten in unserer Studie Veränderungen in der Zellzahl von Natürlichen Killer (NK)-Zellen, B-Lymphozyten und T-Lymphozyten-Subpopulationen (CD4- und CD8-positive Zellen) im Blut sowie Änderungen in der Zytokinproduktion nach Stimulation durch Mitogene vor und während der Narkose. Methoden: Untersucht wurden 30 Patienten, die sich einem elektiven operativen Eingriff nach einem Trauma am Bewegungsapparat unterzogen. Die Stimulationsexperimente wurden mit den Mitogenen Lipopolysaccharid, Phytohämagglutinin und inaktiviertem Newcastle-Disease-Virus durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: Während der Narkose mit Fentanyl, Thiopental, Isofluran und Lachgas beobachteten wir einen signifikanten Abfall der im Blut zirkulierenden NK-Zellen, begleitet von einem Anstieg der B-Zellen und CD8-positiven T-Lymphozyten. Wir maßen einen signifikanten Anstieg von Interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-α, Tumor-Nekrose-Faktor (TNF)-α und dem löslichen Interleukin-2-Rezeptor (sIL-2R) nach Stimulation, während sich die Konzentrationen von Interleukin (IL)-1β und IL-6 nicht wesentlich änderten. Nach Operationsbeginn fiel die Zahl der CD8-positiven Zellen wieder zurück auf das Ausgangsniveau vor Einleitung der Narkose, und die NK-Zellzahl stieg leicht an. Schlußfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse lassen vermuten, daß Anästhetika einen Einfluß auf die Anzahl und die Funktion der zirkulierenden Immunzellen haben. Hiermit könnten die vorbeschriebenen Störungen des menschlichen Immunsystems nach operativen Eingriffen und Allgemeinnarkose erklärt werden.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-160X
    Keywords: Ankylosing spondylitis ; MAS ; Cytokines ; Whole blood assay
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract In this study we compared cytokine production and cell proliferation of immunocompetent cells derived from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) to those from healthy blood donors using a whole blood assay. To this end, blood cell cultures were stimulated with the superantigens MAS (Mycoplasma arthritidis supernatant) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and the plant lectins phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A). The number of white blood cells (WBC) and lymphocyte subsets were also determined. Cell proliferation and levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured after stimulation with the different mitogens. An ELISA test was used to analyse supernatant cytokine levels. Individuals with AS showed significantly lower IFN-γ concentrations and markedly lower cell proliferation rates with all tested mitogens than healthy controls, while there was no significant difference in IL-6 synthesis. IL-Iβ levels were slightly impaired in the patient group, but only blood cell cultures stimulates with MAS showed a statistical significance. Furthermore, there was a significant elevation of leucocytes and lymphocytes in patients with AS resulting in higher numbers of CD4-positive cells, which implies a higher CD4:CD8 cell ratio. CD19- and CD8-positive cells were not significantly distinct compared to healthy controls. This deviation in cytokine levels and cell proliferation points to a suppression of T lymphocytes. A disturbed T-lymphocyte function may play a part in the pathogenesis of AS.
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