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  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; PHASE-I ; CDNA ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; RNA ; METABOLISM ; DIFFERENTIATION ; EPITHELIA ; TISSUE ; kidney ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; CHROMATIN ; gene expression ; DATABASE ; DERIVATIVES ; REGION ; PREDICTION ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; gene expression profiling ; CDNA MICROARRAYS ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION ; MOLECULAR-CLONING ; EMBRYOS ; SPEMANN ORGANIZER ; embryogenesis ; CLUSTER ; intermediate filament ; clustering ; molecular ; BINDING-PROTEIN ; ADULT ; Xenopus laevis ; collagen ; nucleolus ; ribosome ; PHASE ; ASCIDIAN CIONA-INTESTINALIS ; data filtering ; embryonic phases ; endoplasmic reticulum ; HOMEOBOX GENES ; iChipdb ; LAEVIS ; microtubule ; NEURAL PLATE ; organogenesis ; protein biosynthesis ; respiratory chain ; RNA processing ; supra-molecular structure ; synaptic vesicle ; SYNAPTIC VESICLES ; synexpression ; SYNEXPRESSION GROUP ; tricarboxylic acid cycle ; vesicle transport
    Abstract: We have undertaken a large-scale microarray gene expression analysis using cDNAs corresponding to 21,000 Xenopus laevis ESTs. mRNAs from 37 samples, including embryos and adult organs, were profiled. Cluster analysis of embryos of different stages was carried out and revealed expected affinities between gastrulae and neurulae, as well as between advanced neurulae and tadpoles, while egg and feeding larvae were clearly separated. Cluster analysis of adult organs showed some unexpected tissue-relatedness, e.g. kidney is more related to endodermal than to mesodermal tissues and the brain is separated from other neuroectodermal derivatives. Cluster analysis of genes revealed major phases of co-ordinate gene expression between egg and adult stages. During the maternal-early embryonic phase, genes maintaining a rapidly dividing cell state are predominantly expressed (cell cycle regulators, chromatin proteins). Genes involved in protein biosynthesis are progressively induced from mid-embryogenesis onwards. The larval-adult phase is characterised by expression of genes involved in metabolism and terminal differentiation. Thirteen potential synexpression groups were identified, which encompass components of diverse molecular processes or supra-molecular structures, including chromatin, RNA processing and nucleolar function, cell cycle, respiratory chain/Krebs cycle, protein biosynthesis, endoplasmic reticulum, vesicle transport, synaptic vesicle, microtubule, intermediate filament, epithelial proteins and collagen. Data filtering identified genes with potential stage-, region- and organ-specific expression. The dataset was assembled in the iChip microarray database, http://www.dkfz.de/molecular-embryology/microarraydb.html, which allows user-defined queries. The study provides insights into the higher order of vertebrate gene expression, identifies synexpression groups and marker genes, and makes predictions for the biological role of numerous uncharacterized genes. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15763214
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Mesoderm induction ; Activin A ; Erythroid differentiation factor ; Xenopus laevis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Recently the mesoderm-inducing effects of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of proteins have been widely examined. In an attemt to elucidate the functions of these proteins, porcine inhibin A and activin A (erythroid differentiation factor; EDF) were examined. Treatment of explants with activin A led to differentiation of mesodermal derivatives such as mesenchyme, notochord, blood cells and muscle, but inhibin A had a much lesser effect. The mesodermal differentiation induced by activin A was also comfirmed by analyses using a polyclonal antibody against muscle myosin. By indirect immunofluorescence analysis, the differentiation of muscle blocks was observed in the activin-A-treated explants, whereas no differentiation was observed in inhibin-A-treated and control explants. These findings confirm that this protein of the TGF-β family has mesoderm-inducing ability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-041X
    Keywords: Heart morphogenesis ; Endoderm ; Xenopus laevis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract To elucidate the mechanisms of early heart morphogenesis in Xenopus laevis, we examined the effect of endoderm on heart morphogenesis in the early Xenopus neurula. Explants of anterior ventral (presumptive heart) mesoderm from early neurula were cultured alone or in combination with endoderm dissected from various regions. Heart formation was scored by an original heart index based on morphology. These explant studies revealed that anterior ventral endoderm plays a critical role in heart morphogenesis. Furthermore, we found that it was possible to confer this heart-forming ability on posterior ventral endoderm by the injection of poly(A)+ RNA from stage 13 anterior endoderm. These results imply that the heart formative factor(s) is localized in the anterior endoderm of the early neurula and that at least part of this activity is encoded by mRNA(s).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Activin ; Receptor ; Serine/theorine kinase ; Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ; Xenopus laevis
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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