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  • 1
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Keywords: Arabinogalactan protein ; Drosera capensis ; Endoplasmic reticulum ; Golgi apparatus ; Tonoplast ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are proteoglycans detected in high amounts at plant cell surfaces; however, details of their subcellular localization are largely unknown. Immunolocalization studies with the anti-AGP monoclonal antibody LM2 have indicated that this AGP epitope is associated with secretory compartments such as endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus within plant cells actively producing and secreting AGPs. The LM2 epitope contains a β-linked glucuronic acid residue and occurs in the polysaccharide moiety of AGPs. We have localized this AGP epitope also to the tonoplast and to cytoplasmic strands. Endomembrane association of AGPs was confirmed with two other monoclonal antibodies, JIM13 and MAC207, both reacting with carbohydrate AGP epitopes containing GlcpA-β(1→3)-D-GalpA-α(1→2)-L-Rha residues. Immunocytochemistry is supported by biochemical analysis which shows that LM2 reacts with the microsomal fraction and also with low-molecular-weight material of the detergent phase after Triton X-114 phase separation prepared from maize roots. Our results indicate that some AGP epitopes are closely associated with endomembranes.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Keywords: Key words Arabinogalactan-proteins ; Somatic embryogenesis ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Embryogenic units of friable maize callus are formed as globular or oblong packets of tightly associated meristematic cells. These units are surrounded by conspicuous cell walls visible in light microscopy after staining with basic fuchsin. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that embryogenic cells are rich in endoplasmic reticulum, polysomes and small protein bodies, and that the outermost layer of their cell walls is composed of fibrillar material. Electron microscopy has also shown that this material covers the surface of embryogenic cells as a distinct layer which we denote as extracellular matrix surface network (ECMSN). Employing histochemical staining with β-glucosyl Yariv phenylglycoside, we localized arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) to the outer cell walls of embryogenic units including ECMSN. The most prominent staining was found in cell-cell junction domains. Large non-embryogenic callus cells were not stained with this AGP-specific dye. Immunofluorescence and silver-enhanced immunogold labelling using monoclonal antibody JIM4 has shown that the ECMSN of embryogenic cells is equipped with JIM4 epitope, while non-embryogenic callus cells are devoid of this epitope. We propose that some specific AGPs of the ECMSN might be relevant for cell-cell adhesion and recognition of embryogenic cells during early embryogenic stages, and that the JIM4 antibody can serve as an early marker of embryogenic competence in maize callus culture.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Filipin ; Lepidium ; Plasma membrane ; Root (membranes) ; Tonoplast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Membranes from roots of Lepidium sativum L. were investigated in situ and after fractionation by applying morphological and biochemical methods. After freeze-fracture combined with filipin labelling the tonoplast and the plasma membrane could be easily characterized by the frequency of intramembranous particles and the arrangement of filipin-induced lesions. On tonoplast vesicles, the filipin-induced lesions were arranged in clusters of different size whereas they were evenly distributed on plasma membrane vesicles. Enrichment of tonoplast and plasma membrane in different fractions was documented by filipin labelling, phosphotungstic acid staining and by the profiles of marker enzyme activities and ATP-dependent H+-transport. Additionally, the presence of rightside-out and inside-out vesicles of both tonoplast and plasma membrane could be demonstrated. It was found that filipin labelling used in combination with freeze-fracturing is suitable for quantitative determinations of the percentages of tonoplast and plasma membrane in membrane fractions, which have been found to be more than 40% for the tonoplast and about 40% for plasma membrane in the respective enriched fractions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Chara ; Graviperception ; Lepidium ; Microfilament ; Microgravity ; Statolith (reduced gravitational field)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract During five rocket flights (TEXUS 18, 19, 21, 23 and 25), experiments were performed to investigate the behaviour of statoliths in rhizoids of the green alga Chara globularia Thuill. and in statocytes of cress (Lepidium sativum L.) roots, when the gravitational field changed to approx. 10−4 · g (i.e. microgravity) during the parabolic flight (lasting for 301–390 s) of the rockets. The position of statoliths was only slightly influenced by the conditions during launch, e.g. vibration, acceleration and rotation of the rocket. Within approx. 6 min of microgravity conditions the shape of the statolith complex in the rhizoids changed from a transversely oriented lens into a longitudinally oriented spindle. The center of the statolith complex moved approx. 14 μm and 3.6 μm in rhizoids and root statocytes, respectively, in the opposite direction to the originally acting gravity vector. The kinetics of statolith displacement in rhizoids demonstrate that the velocity was nearly constant under microgravity whereas it decreased remarkably after inversion of rhizoids on Earth. It can be concluded that on Earth the position of statoliths in both rhizoids and root statocytes depends on the balance of two forces, i.e. the gravitational force and the counteracting force mediated by microfilaments.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Lepidium ; Membrane protein ; Monoclonal antibody TOP 71 ; Plasma membrane ; Tonoplast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Highly purified tonoplast and plasma-membrane vesicles isolated from roots of Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) were used as a starting material for generating a monoclonal antibody against plant tonoplast. Tonoplast vesicles were isolated by discontinuous-sucrose-gradient centrifugation followed by free-flow electrophoresis. The deglycosylated tonoplast fraction was used to generate monoclonal antibodies by immunization of Balb/c-mice and by fusion of their β-lymphocytes with the mouse cell line X 63 Ag 8.653. Using plasma membrane purified by two-phase partitioning and freeflow electrophoresis to define the negative signal in screening, and purified tonoplast to define the positive signal in screening, a monoclonal antibody (TOP 71) was obtained which recognized a tonoplast protein of 71 kDa by immunoblotting in cress-root membrane fractions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, affinoblotting and binding to concanavalin A showed that the TOP 71-antigen was a glycosylated protein and had an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5. The TOP 71-antigen was found in the different tissues of organs of several higher plants (Glycine max L., Curcurbita pepo L., Zea mays L.) where it did not cross-react with the purified plasma-membrane fractions of these plants. Additionally, TOP 71 recognized its antigen in microsomal fractions of two lower plants (Chara globularis Thuili., Matteucia struthiopteris Tod.).
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