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  • Micropuncture  (1)
  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: Transport ; Proteins ; Ions ; Micropuncture ; Tight junctions ; Permeability ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: To understand the process of sperm maturation, an understanding of interactions between the spermatozoa with the luminal fluid microenvironment and with the epididymal epithelium is necessary. The composition of epididymal luminal fluid of several species is well documented but the manner by which the epididymis contributes to the formation of this specialized milieu is not so well understood. A major role played by the epididymis is to finely regulate the movement of molecules into and out of the lumen. This ensures that as spermatozoa progress along the duct they are exposed to a continually changing, but optimal environment necessary for their maturation and survival. This review focusses on our current understanding of the contributions of the epididymal epithelium to the formation of a specialized luminal fluid microenvironment. The role of the blood-epididymis barrier, the composition of the epididymal luminal fluid, the permeability properties of the epididymal epithelium, and recent studies on a number of luminal fluid proteins and expression of the genes which encode these proteins are discussed. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2592
    Keywords: Tumor necrosis factor ; lymphotoxin ; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ; cytokines ; lymphokines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with abnormalities of both T-cell and B-cell immunity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Previous studies demonstrated deficient production of the cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta have not been previously investigated in AIDS. In this study we demonstrate that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with HIV infection who have either AIDS-related complex or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are deficient in the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta. These cytokines, derived predominantly from monocytes or lymphocytes, respectively, function as immunoregulatory, antitumor, and antiinfective proteins. A deficiency in their production may therefore be responsible for many of the complications associated with HIV infection in patients with AIDS-related complex or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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