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  • Keywords: Oxidative stress  (1)
  • affinity chromatography  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic control ; urine ; glycopeptides ; affinity chromatography ; non-enzymatic glycosylation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The relationship between improvement in diabetic control and changes in levels of glycosylated urinary peptides was investigated. Eight poorly controlled Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients were studied as optimal metabolic control was achieved. Mean daily blood glucose values and weekly haemoglobin A1 levels were determined simultaneously. Urinary glycosylated peptide levels fell 50% in 15 days, compared with 23 days for haemoglobin A1. Levels of glycosylated urinary peptides were sensitive to increased mean blood glucose concentrations of 9.72 mmol/l and increased linearly up to 20.0 mmol/l (r=0.98) when compared with mean blood glucose levels obtained 8–9 days earlier. A similar correlation was found with haemoglobin A1 levels. Levels of glycosylated urinary peptides before and after optimal control were compared, and a decrease of 40% was observed (pre-control: 269±44 μmol/day, optimal control: 162±45 μmol/day, mean±SEM). The lag time between the fall in mean blood glucose level and the parallel fall in glycosylated urinary peptides was 8–9 days, suggesting that measurement of these compounds may become a useful clinical laboratory technique for monitoring short-term integrated glycaemia in diabetic patients.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Oxidative stress ; diabetes ; aging ; advanced glycation endproducts ; lipid peroxidation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Many approaches have been undertaken to understand Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the clincally most important factor determining the onset and progression of the disease. However, there is increasing evidence that the previously so-called "secondary factors" such as a disturbed glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and formation of "advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs) and their interaction in a vicious cycle are also important for the onset and progression of AD. AGEs are protein modifications that contribute to the formation of the histopathological and biochemical hallmarks of AD: amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and activated microglia. Oxidative modifications are formed by a complex cascade of dehydration, oxidation and cyclisation reactions, subsequent to a non-enzymatic reaction of sugars with amino groups of proteins. Accumulation of AGE-crosslinked proteins throughout life is a general phenomenon of ageing. However, AGEs are more than just markers of ageing since they can also exert adverse biologic effects on tissues and cells, including the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to the upregulation of cytokine and free radical production (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is involved in various divergent events leading to cell damage, including an increase in membrane rigidity, DNA strand breaks and an impairment in glucose uptake. In addition, other age-related metabolic changes such as depletion of antioxidants or decreased energy production by a disturbed glucose metabolism diminish the ability of the cell to cope with the effects of radical-induced membrane, protein and DNA damage. With our improving understanding of the molecular basis for the clinical symptoms of dementia, it is hoped that the elucidation of the etiologic causes, particularly the positive feedback loops involving radical damage and a reduced glucose metabolism, will help to develop novel "neuroprotective" treatment strategies able to interrupt this vicious cycle of oxidative stress and energy shortage in AD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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