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  • Key words Erythropoietin  (1)
  • agent architecture  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7527
    Keywords: active vision ; autonomous robots ; agent architecture ; visual routines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we present a system called the Active Vision Shell (AV-shell) which provides a programming framework for expressing and implementing autonomous robotic tasks using perception and action where perception is provided by active vision. The AV-shell is a system with a powerful interactive C-shell style interface providing many important capabilities including: (1) architectural support; (2) an abstract interface enabling interaction with a wide variety of devices; (3) a rich set of visual routines; and (4) a process composition framework. The utility of the AV-shell is demonstrated in several examples showing the relevance of the AV-shell to meaningful applications in autonomous robotics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Key words Erythropoietin ; Carbon dioxide ; Haemoglobin oxygen affinity ; Human ; Hypoxia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  This study investigated the human erythropoietin (EPO) response to short-term hypocapnic hypoxia, its relationship to a normoxic or hypoxic increase of the haemoglobin oxygen affinity, and its suppression by the addition of CO2 to the hypoxic gas. On separate days, eight healthy male subjects were exposed to 2 h each of hypocapnic hypoxia, normocapnic hypoxia, hypocapnic normoxia, and normal breathing of room air (control experiment). During the control experiment, serum-EPO showed significant variations (ANOVA P=0.047) with a 15% increase in mean values. The serum-EPO measured in the other experiments were corrected for these spontaneous variations in each individual. At 2 h after ending hypocapnic hypoxia (10% O2 in nitrogen), mean serum-EPO increased by 28% [baseline 8.00 (SEM 0.84) U⋅1-1, post-hypoxia 10.24 (SEM 0.95) U⋅1-1, P=0.005]. Normocapnic hypoxia was produced by the addition of CO2 (10% Co2 with 10% O2) to the hypoxic gas mixture. This elicited an increased ventilation, unaltered arterial pH and haemoglobin oxygen affinity, a lower degree of hypoxia than during hypocapnic hypoxia, and no significant changes in serum-EPO (ANOVA P〉0.05). Hypocapnic normoxia, produced by hyperventilation of room air, elicited a normoxic increase in the haemoglobin oxygen affinity without changing serum-EPO. Among the measured blood gas and acid-base parameters, only the partial pressures of oxygen in arterial blood during hypocapnic hypoxia were related to the peak values of serum-EPO (r=−0.81, P=0.01). The present human EPO responses to hypoxia were lower than those which have previously been reported in rodents and humans. In contrast with the earlier rodent studies, it was found that human EPO production could not be triggered by short-term increases in pH and haemoglobin oxygen affinity per se, and the human EPO response to hypoxia could be suppressed by concomitant normocapnia without acidosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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