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  • autoimmunity  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Prediction ; Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes ; autoimmunity ; autoantibodies ; prevention
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Genetic determination as well as prospective analysis of islet cell autoantibodies and autoantibodies to insulin were conducted in a population of 479 first degree relatives of 174 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Analysis of HLA haplotypes within families illustrated the high frequency of DR3 and DR4 alleles with preferential transmission from parent to both affected and unaffected offspring. DR4 was preferentially associated with DQw3.2 (TA10−) in 60/73 (82.2%) patients and 101/127 (79.5%) relatives. Relatives have been followed for a period of 800 subject-years. Twenty-two out of 430 relatives (5.1%) were found islet cell antibodies (ICA-IgG) positive. Seven sera with low titres became negative 6 months later at two different determinations. Fifteen sera ICA-IgG and ICA-protein A positive with high titres remained positive thereafter. Half of the ICA positive relatives were also found insulin autoantibodies (IAA) positive. All but 3 ICA negative relatives did not have IAA in their sera. Analysis of IAA specificity with competition experiments indicated that most antibodies recognised epitopes shared between human and pork insulins while four were specific for human insulin determinants. Analysis of class I and class II HLA antigen distribution indicated no particular allelic restriction in antibody positive individuals. Metabolic status of antibody positive relatives was determined with oral and intravenous charge of glucose. Two haplo-identical DR3-DQw2 brothers became diabetic during the study. One child and one mother both with DR4-DQw3.2 became intolerant to glucose. Each of these relatives had high titre ICA prior to metabolic deterioration. Taken together, these data indicated that ICA and IAA may be present in first degree relatives of diabetic patients. Individualisation of markers of the ongoing autoimmune process and accurate evaluation of the residual B-cell mass are necessary steps before further immune interventions in the early phases of the disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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