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  • Chiroptera  (1)
  • Desmodus Inferior colliculus  (1)
  • Protease inhibitor  (1)
  • Tonotopy  (1)
  • biliary excretion  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Hearing ; Chiroptera ; Desmodus Inferior colliculus ; Tonotopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Within the tonotopic organization of the inferior colliculus two frequency ranges are well represented: a frequency range within that of the echolocation signals from 50 to 100 kHz, and a frequency band below that of the echolocation sounds, from 10 to 35 kHz. The frequency range between these two bands, from about 40 to 50 kHz is distinctly underrepresented (Fig. 3B). 2. Units with BFs in the lower frequency range (10–25 kHz) were most sensitive with thresholds of -5 to -11 dB SPL, and units with BFs within the frequency range of the echolocation signals had minimal thresholds around 0 dB SPL (Fig. 1). 3. In the medial part of the rostral inferior colliculus units were encountered which preferentially or exclusively responded to noise stimuli. — Seven neurons were found which were only excited by human breathing noises and not by pure tones, frequency modulated signals or various noise bands. These neurons were considered as a subspeciality of the larger sample of noise-sensitive neurons. — The maximal auditory sensitivity in the frequency range below that of echolocation, and the conspicuous existence of noise and breathing-noise sensitive units in the inferior colliculus are discussed in context with the foraging behavior of vampire bats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Acute phase ; Alzheimer's disease ; Interleukin-6 ; Protease inhibitor ; α-2-Macroglobulin
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ceftizoxime ; cephalosporins ; renal excretion ; tubular reabsorption ; tubular secretion ; healthy volunteers ; biliary excretion ; clearance studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The kinetics of ceftizoxime, a newly developed cephalosporin, were evaluated in 6 healthy subjects, with respect to its excretory pathways especially by the biliary route. Total, renal and biliary clearance were determined at two different steady states. Steady state was achieved by constant intravenous infusion (604.1 mg/h) over 6 h after an initial loading dose (750 mg); 1.5 h after discontinuation of that infusion, a further infusion was commenced at a lower rate (284 mg/h) over 3 h, the second steady state being reached 0.5 to 1.0 h later. The drug was mainly excreted by the kidneys (56.7 to 92.9% of the dose). Biliary excretion, measured by the duodenal perfusion and marker dilution technique, was low (0.2 to 7.8% of the dose). Urinary and biliary excretion as well as total clearance were not dose-dependent. However, there was pronounced interindividual variation in total (35.2 to 236 ml/min) and renal clearance (10.6 to 208 ml/min), which could both be explained by varying interindividual urinary flow rates (mean flow rate: 0.99 ml/min to 3.14 ml/min). Intraindividual variation in renal clearance was less pronounced, but in the same subject changes in renal clearance were correlated with changes in urinary flow rate. From the varying renal clearance, which exceeded the glomerular filtration rate at high urinary flow rates and was below it at low urinary flow rates, it can be concluded that, in addition to glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption are involved in the renal excretion of ceftizoxime. The half-life calculated from two point estimates after discontinuation of the infusion at the higher rate tended to be longer in subjects with high total clearance (e. g. 1.4 h, clearance 223 ml/min) and shorter in subjects with low total clearance (e.g. 0.85 h, clearance 35.2 ml/min). From this it is concluded that the true half-life was not observed after discontinuation of the infusion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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