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  • bladder cancer  (6)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; EMPHYSEMA ; FOLLOW-UP ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; NETWORKS ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DNA adducts ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENES ; TIME ; DNA ; AIR-POLLUTION ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; AGE ; REPAIR ; smoking ; leukemia ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS ; DNA-DAMAGE ; RECRUITMENT ; ADDUCTS ; case-control studies ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; WHITE BLOOD-CELLS ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; case-control study ; DETERMINANTS ; monitoring ; GSTM1 ; LEVEL ; ADDUCT ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; DNA damage ; DNA ADDUCT ; ABILITY ; GENDER ; OUTDOOR AIR-POLLUTION ; OZONE
    Abstract: Objectives were to investigate prospectively the ability of DNA adducts to predict cancer and to study the determinants of adducts, especially air pollutants. DNA adducts were measured in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC investigation. Cases included newly diagnosed lung cancer (n = 115), upper respiratory cancers (pharynx and larynx, n 82), bladder cancer (n = 124), leukemia (n = 166), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or emphysema deaths (n = 77) accrued after a median follow-up of 7 years among the EPIC former smokers and never-smokers. Three controls per case were matched for questionnaire analyses and two controls per case for laboratory analyses. Matching criteria were gender, age, smoking status, country of recruitment, and follow-up time. Individual exposure to air pollution was assessed using concentration data from monitoring stations in routine air quality monitoring networks. Leukocyte DNA adducts were analyzed blindly using (32)p postlabeling technique. Adducts were associated with the subsequent risk of lung cancer, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.88-3.931 when comparing detectable versus nondetectable adducts. The association with lung cancer was stronger in never-smokers (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.06-15.42) and among the younger age groups. After exclusion of the cancers occurring in the first 36 months of follow-up, the OR was 4.16 (95% CI, 1.24-13.88). A positive association was found between DNA adducts and ozone (O-3) concentration. Our prospective study suggests that leukocyte DNA adducts may predict lung cancer risk of never-smokers. Besides, the association of DNA adduct levels with O-3 indicates a possible role for photochemical smog in determining DNA damage
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16140979
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; PHASE-I ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; RISK ; ENZYMES ; GENE ; GENES ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; DELETION ; NO ; STRESS ; AGE ; SNP ; smoking ; leukemia ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; gene-environment interaction ; INVOLVEMENT ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; OXIDATIVE STRESS ; European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ; nutrition ; glutathione-S-transferase ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; ASSOCIATIONS ; PATTERN ; VARIANT ; ALLELE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; SNPs ; interaction ; GSTM1 ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; MTHFR ; ALLELES ; case control studies ; ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO-SMOKE ; INTERVAL ; ENZYME ; methods ; PHASE ; single-nucleotide ; pooled analysis ; prospective ; CANDIDATE ; NEVER SMOKERS ; CANCERS ; CANCER-RISK ; Phase I ; SET ; case control ; METABOLIC PATHWAYS ; GENETIC-SUSCEPTIBILITY ; nonsmokers ; METHYLENE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; metabolic genes ; NULL-GENOTYPE
    Abstract: Background: We chose a set of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to investigate gene-environment interactions in three types of cancer that have been related to air pollution (lung, bladder and myeloid leukemia). Patients and methods: The study has been conducted as a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (409 cancer cases and 757 matched controls). We included never and ex-smokers. SNPs were in genes involved in oxidative stress, phase I metabolizing genes, phase 11 metabolizing genes and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Results: The most notable findings are: GSTM1 deletion and bladder cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.60; 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.56]; CYP1A1 and leukemia (2.22, 1.33-3.70; heterozygotes); CYP1B1 and leukemia (0.47, 0.27-0.84; homozygotes); MnSOD and leukemia (1.91, 1.08-3.38; homozygotes) and NQO1 and lung cancer (8.03, 1.73-37.3; homozygotes). Other statistically significant associations were found in subgroups defined by smoking habits (never or ex-smokers), environmental tobacco smoke or gender, with no obvious pattern. When gene variants were organized according to the three main pathways, the emerging picture was of a strong involvement of combined phase I enzymes in leukemia, with an OR of 5 (1.63-15.4) for those having three or more variant alleles. The association was considerably stronger for leukemias arising before the age of 55
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17496311
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; INFORMATION ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; MARKER ; IMPACT ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; FORM ; STAGE ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; smoking ; BLADDER ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; MARKERS ; FRANCE ; PRODUCT ; Jun ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; TOBACCO SMOKING ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; CANDIDATE GENES ; CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE ; EMPIRICAL-BAYES ; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES ; interaction ; ISSUES ; MATRICES ; MYELOPEROXIDASE ; SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE ; XRCC1 POLYMORPHISMS
    Abstract: Background: Genetic association studies are generating much information, usually in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes. Analyzing such data is challenging, and raises issues of multiple comparisons and potential false-positive associations. Using data from a case-control study of bladder cancer, we showed how to use hierarchical modeling in genetic epidemiologic studies with multiple markers to control overestimation of effects and potential false-positive associations. Methods: The data were first analyzed with the conventional approach of estimating each main effect individually. We subsequently employed hierarchical modeling by adding a second stage (prior) model that incorporated information on the potential function of the genes. We used an empirical-Bayes approach, estimating the residual effects of the genes from the data. When the residual effect was set to zero, we instead used a semi-Bayes approach, in which they were pre-specified. We also explored the impact of using different second-stage design matrices. Finally, we used two approaches for assessing gene-environment interactions. The first approach added product terms into the first-stage model. The second approach used three indicators for subjects exposed to gene-only, environment-only, and both genetic and environmental factors. Results: By pre-specifying the prior second-stage covariates, the estimates were shrunk to the mean of each pathway. The conventional model detected a number of positive associations, which were reduced with the hierarchical model. For example, the odds ratio for myeloperoxidase (G/G, G/A) genotype changed from 3.17 [95% confidence interval (0), 1.32-7.59] to 1.64 (95% CI, 0.81-3.34). A similar phenomenon was observed for the gene-environment interactions. The odds ratio for the gene-environment interaction between tobacco smoking and N-acetyltransferase 1 fast genotype was 2.74 (95% Cl, 0.68-11.0) from the conventional analysis and 1.24 (95% CI, 0.80-1.93) from the hierarchical model. Conclusion: Adding a second-stage hierarchical modeling can reduce the likelihood of false positive via shrinkage toward the prior mean, improve the risk estimation by increasing the precision, and, therefore, represents an alternative to conventional methods for genetic association studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15184258
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; BLOOD ; CELL ; human ; LUNG ; DIAGNOSIS ; FOLLOW-UP ; EXPOSURE ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; PATIENT ; DNA ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; HUMANS ; DESIGN ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MUTATION ; genetics ; smoking ; leukemia ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; PCR ; CANCER-CELLS ; MUTATIONS ; RECRUITMENT ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; ADDUCTS ; case-control studies ; CANCER PATIENTS ; nutrition ; MULTICENTER ; lung neoplasms ; TP53 ; ADULT ; prospective studies ; PROTOONCOGENE ; HEALTHY-SUBJECTS ; INTERVAL ; CANCER DEVELOPMENT ; prospective ; prospective study ; healthy subjects ; female ; Male ; CANCERS ; LIQUID ; EXPOSURES ; Aged ; Middle Aged ; CANCER-DIAGNOSIS ; Genes,p53 ; Longitudinal Studies ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins ; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
    Abstract: In cancer patients, plasma often contains mutant DNA released by cancer cells. We have assessed the significance of plasma DNA mutations for subsequent cancer development in healthy subjects in a large longitudinal prospective study. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study was analyzed with a nested case-control design. Cases were nonsmokers or ex-smokers for 〉10 years and newly diagnosed with lung, bladder, or upper aerodigestive tract cancers or leukemia accrued after a median follow-up of 6.3 years. Controls were matched 2:1 for follow-up, age, sex, area of recruitment, and smoking status. KRAS2 mutations were detected by mutant-enriched PCR and sequencing (n = 1,098). TP53 mutations were detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis, and sequencing (n = 550). KRAS2 or TP53 mutations were detected in 13 of 1,098 (1.2%) and 20 of 550 (3.6%) subjects, respectively, 16 of whom developed cancer on average after 18.3 months of follow-up. Among 137 subjects who developed bladder cancer, 5 had KRAS2 mutations [odds ratio (OR), 4.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.27-14.15] and 7 had TP53 mutations (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.66-4.97). There was a nonsignificant trend for association between TP53 mutations and bulky adducts in lymphocyte DNA (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 0.64-12.17). This is the first report of TP53 or KRAS2 mutations in the plasma of healthy subjects in a prospective study, suggesting that KRAS2 mutation is detectable ahead of bladder cancer diagnosis. TP53 mutation may be associated with environmental exposures. These observations have implications for monitoring early steps of carcinogenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16818665
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; COHORT ; cohort studies ; cohort study ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; DNA adducts ; RISK ; RISKS ; GENE ; GENES ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; AIR-POLLUTION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; BREAST-CANCER ; LESIONS ; DESIGN ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; risk factors ; smoking ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; MUTATIONS ; ADDUCTS ; case-control studies ; OXYGEN ; DNA repair ; EXCISION-REPAIR ; reactive oxygen species ; case-control study ; VARIANT ; air pollution ; INCREASE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION ; XPD POLYMORPHISMS ; case control studies ; INTERVAL ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; N-NITROSO COMPOUNDS ; BASAL-CELL CARCINOMA ; CHROMOSOME 19Q13.2-3 ; GENE XRCC3
    Abstract: Environmental carcinogens contained in air pollution, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines or N-nitroso compounds, predominantly form DNA adducts but can also generate interstrand cross-links and reactive oxygen species. If unrepaired, such lesions increase the risk of somatic mutations and cancer. Our study investigated the relationships between 22 polymorphisms (and their haplotypes) in 16 DNA repair genes belonging to different repair pathways in 1094 controls and 567 cancer cases (bladder cancer, 131; lung cancer, 134; oral-pharyngeal cancer, 41; laryngeal cancer, 47; leukaemia, 179; death from emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 84). The design was a case-control study nested within a prospective investigation. Among the many comparisons, few polymorphisms were associated with the diseases at the univariate analysis: XRCC1-399 Gln/Gln variant homozygotes [odds ratios (OR) = 2.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.16-4.17] and XRCC3-241 Met/Met homozygotes (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.96) and leukaemia. The recessive model in the stepwise multivariate analysis revealed a possible protective effect of XRCC1-399Gln/Gln in lung cancer (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.05-0.98), and confirmed an opposite effect (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.02-6.02) in the leukaemia group. Our results also suggest that the XPD/ERCC1-GAT haplotype may modulate leukaemia (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.02-1.61), bladder cancer (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.06-1.79) and possibly other cancer risks. Further investigations of the combined effects of polymorphisms within these DNA repair genes, smoking and other risk factors may help to clarify the influence of genetic variation in the carcinogenic process
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16308313
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; INFORMATION ; SUPPORT ; COHORT ; EXPOSURE ; LONG-TERM ; RISK ; ACTIVATION ; DNA ; AIR ; ASSOCIATION ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; NO ; HEALTH ; lifestyle ; MUTATION ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; cancer risk ; acetylation ; METABOLIC-ACTIVATION ; COLON-CANCER ; MUTATIONS ; gene-environment interaction ; CARCINOGENS ; DIET ; DIETARY ; NETHERLANDS ; case-control studies ; CONSUMPTION ; EPIC ; nutrition ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; VARIANT ; prospective studies ; LEVEL ; methods ; GENOTYPE ; prospective ; MEAT INTAKE ; RISK-FACTOR ; VARIABLES ; CANCER-RISK ; ENGLAND ; AMINE ; N-acetyltransferase ; GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS ; N-ACETYLATION
    Abstract: Objective The suspect carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HAAs), found in well-done meat require host-mediated metabolic activation before inducing DNA mutations. The role of SULT1A1 and of NAT2 on the activation of HAAs suggests that NAT2 rapid acetylator genotype and SULT1A1 allele variants can have an effect on HAA carcinogenicity. Methods Data were collected as part of a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort, the Gen Air investigation. EPIC is a prospective study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer. Information was collected through a non-dietary questionnaire on lifestyle variables and through a dietary questionnaire. The subjects were restricted to non-smokers. We calculated the matched odds ratio for bladder cancer risk using logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Results There were 227 bladder cases and 612 controls matched 1:3. Meat intake and NAT2 genotype were not independently associated with bladder cancer risk. A significant relationship was observed between bladder cancer risk and consumption of meat only among subjects with the rapid NAT2 genotype (odds ratios [OR] 2.9, 95% CI 1.0-7.9 for the 2nd quartile of meat intake; 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-9.7 for the 3rd quartile; and 3.5, 95% CI 1.2-9.7 for the 4th quartile), and was not present among subjects with the slow genotype. An interaction between NAT2 and meat intake was found in logistic regression (P = 0.034). No association was observed for SULT1A *1/2 genotype (1.0; 95% CI 0.7-1.5) and for SULT1A1 *2/2 genotype (0.9; 95% CI 0.5-1.7). Conclusions These results are suggestive of a role of meat intake and NAT2 on bladder cancer risk. They support the hypothesis that among subjects with the rapid NAT2 acetylation genotype higher levels of HAAs exposure are a bladder cancer risk factor. We did not observe an effect of SULT1A1 allele variants on this cancer. The present study adds new information on the possible long-term adverse effects of diets with high meat intake
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18264785
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