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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7217
    Keywords: breast cancer ; Cox regression ; histologic tumor grading ; node negative ; prognosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prognostic effect of histological tumor grade was evaluated in 1036 patients with early breast cancer (pT1 pN0 M0) entered into a trial comparing mastectomy and breast preserving treatment. All analyses were adjusted for the factors treatment, patients' age, and tumor size. Tumor grade was defined according to Bloom and Richardson based on the sum of scores assigned to each of three histological features: 1) degree of differentiation, 2) pleomorphism, and 3) mitotic index. The relative importance of these factors with regard to disease-free survival was evaluated. In univariate as well as in multivariate analyses the pleomorphism was the only factor showing a significant effect (univariate: p=0.0024, multivariate: p=0.015). It was investigated how the factors should be combined to define a histological grading score which yields the best possible classification of the patients with respect to prognosis. A new grading system was defined splitting the patients into three groups: 1) pleomorphism 1; 2) pleomorphism 2 or pleomorphism 3 and mitotic index 1; 3) pleomorphism 3 and mitotic index 2 or 3. This yields a good classification of the patients with respect to prognosis (p=0.0004). The prognostic effect of this score was compared with the effects of the grading systems proposed in the literature. According to Bloom and Richardson and in the modified version by Schauer and Weiss, grading is based on the sum of scores of the various histological factors. Therefore, the strong effect of the pleomorphism was diluted in these grading definitions (Bloom and Richardson: p=0.03, Schauer and Weiss: p=0.028). The grading system proposed by Le Doussalet al. consists only of the scores of pleomorphism and mitotic index (p=0.014). In summary, the factor pleomorphism showed a stronger effect on disease-free survival by itself than the grading systems proposed in the literature.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Key words RT/PCR ; PTHrP ; Metastasis ; Blood ; Bone marrow ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow is an independent prognostic marker for relapse and survival for patients with primary breast cancer. Parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is expressed in most primary tumors and bone metastases of patients with breast cancer. PTHrP acts as an autocrine growth factor for breast cancer cells in vitro and there is evidence that it is especially important for osseous metastasis. For a sensitive detection of PTHrP-positive disseminated tumor cells a reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) assay for PTHrP transcripts in the peripheral blood (PB) and in the bone marrow (BM) has been established. In mixing studies, the sensitivity of the reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) for PTHrP was one tumor cell in 1 × 106 mononuclear cells. At this level of sensitivity, transcripts of PTHrP were detected in none of 30 PB samples and in 3 of 25 BM samples of healthy volunteers; there were also no transcripts of PTHrP in the PB and BM of 6 patients with benign breast lesions. The PB samples of 31 patients and the BM samples of 34 patients with predominantly early-stage breast cancer were tested for PTHrP expression along with immunocytology against cytokeratin 18 (CK18) as a standard immunological detection technique. PTHrP expression was shown in 9 of 31 patients in the PB and in 9 of 34 patients in the BM. In 30 patients, PB and BM samples were available simultaneously. There were cases of combined positive findings in the PB and the BM (4/30) and of isolated positivity in the PB (5/30) or in the BM (4/30). Compared to immunocytology, RT/PCR assay of PTHrP assay was significantly more sensitive in the peripheral blood (8/30 by RT/PCR compared to 1/30 by immunocytology). In the bone marrow there were cases of positivity for both markers (2/34), cases of isolated positivity by immunocytology for CK18 (3/34) and cases of isolated positivity for PTHrP transcripts (7/34). In conclusion the RT/PCR assay for PTHrP transcripts is a feasible and very sensitive technique for the detection of tumor cell dissemination in the PB, even in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The specificity of detection of PTHrP transcripts in the bone marrow is limited, possibly because of autochthonous expression of PTHrP in osteoblastic cells. The clinical follow-up of the subgroups of patients at risk, as defined by this assay, will show its prognostic significance for patients with breast cancer.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: RT/PCR ; PTHrP ; Metastasis ; Blood ; Bone marrow ; breast cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Tumor cell dissemination in the bone marrow is an independent prognostic marker for relapse and survival for patients with primary breast cancer. Parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is expressed in most primary tumors and bone metastases of patients with breast cancer. PTHrP acts as an autocrine growth factor for breast cancer cells in vitro and there is evidence that it is especially important for osseous metastasis. For a sensitive detection of PTHrP-positive disseminated tumor cells a reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) assay for PTHrP transcripts in the peripheral blood (PB) and in the bone marrow (BM) has been established. In mixing studies, the sensitivity of the reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR) for PTHrP was one tumor cell in 1×106 mononuclear cells. At this level of sensitivity, transcripts of PTHrP were detected in none of 30 PB samples and in 3 of 25 BM samples of healthy volunteers: there were also no transcripts of PTHrP in the PB and BM of 6 patients with benign breast lesions. The PB samples of 31 patients and the BM samples of 34 patients with predominantly early-stage breast cancer were tested for PTHrP expression along with immunocytology against cytokeratin 18 (CK18) as a standard immunological detection technique. PTHrP expression was shown in 9 of 31 patients in the PB and in 9 of 34 patients in the BM. In 30 patients, PB and BM samples were available simultaneously. There were cases of combined positive findings in the PB and the BM (4/30) and of isolated positivity in the PB (5/30) or in the BM (4/30). Compared to immunocytology, RT/PCR assay of PTHrP assay was significantly more sensitive in the peripheral blood (8/30 by RT/PCR compared to 1/30 by immunocytology). In the bone marrow there were cases of positivity for both markers (2/34), cases of isolated positivity by immunocytology for CK18 (3/34) and cases of isolated positivity for PTHrP transcripts (7/34). In conclusion the RT/PCR assay for PTHrP transcripts is a feasible and very sensitive technique for the detection of tumor cell dissemination in the PB, even in patients with early-stage breast cancer. The specificity of detection of PTHrP transcripts in the bone marrow is limited, possibly because of autochthonous expression of PTHrP in osteoblastic cells. The clinical follow-up of the subgroups of patients at risk, as defined by this assay, will show its prognostic significance for patients with breast cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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