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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; COMPLEX ; MESSENGER-RNA ; TARGET ; LONG-TERM POTENTIATION ; synaptic plasticity ; c-Fos ; REVEALS ; MUTANT MICE ; NEURONS ; MATRIX-METALLOPROTEINASE-9 ; MMP-9 ; learning and memory ; MICRORNA ; BDNF ; MAMMALIAN NEURONS
    Abstract: Learning and memory refer to an animal's ability to respond adequately to environmental signals that may be negative (aversive learning) or positive (appetitive learning) in nature. The extremely elaborate connectivity network of neurons in the brain is capable of governing animals' reactions (e.g., by enhancing or weakening single or multiple synapses). Such circuit plasticity is largely believed to be the very essence of memory formation. It has been suggested that long-term memory, in contrast to short-term memory, requires de novo protein synthesis and can be prevented by protein synthesis inhibitors. The local protein translation in dendrites allows neurons to selectively rebuild only those synapses that have been activated. However, substrates of protein synthesis (i.e., mRNA) have to be kept suppressed until they are needed. MicroRNAs-short, non-protein-coding RNA regulatory sequences that guide an RNA-induced silencing complex to target mRNAs-seem to be perfect candidates in fulfilling this function in neurons. In this article, the authors discuss the recently recognized role of microRNAs as regulators of memory formation and endurance.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21734154
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  • 2
    Keywords: brain ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; VIVO ; SYSTEM ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; TRANSDUCTION ; INDUCTION ; RAT ; RATS ; TISSUES ; BIOLOGY ; TARGET ; hippocampus ; NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; VECTORS ; VECTOR ; PROMOTERS ; transgenic ; genetics ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; RAT-BRAIN ; LENTIVIRAL VECTOR ; EGFR ; HUNTINGTONS-DISEASE ; NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ; USA ; Doxycycline ; lentiviral vectors ; TRANSGENIC RATS ; Genetic ; NEURONS IN-VITRO ; rtTA ; Tet system ; TIGHT CONTROL
    Abstract: Local and regulated expression of exogenous genes in the central nervous system is one of the major challenges of modern neuroscience. We have approached this issue by applying the inducible tetracycline system to regulate the expression of EGFP reporter gene in double transgenic rats. We have obtained a strong induction of EGFP only in male testes, which correlated with a high level of rtTA expression only in this organ. To overcome the problem of lack of rtTA protein in the transgenic rat brain, we have delivered this Tet system activator with lentiviral vectors into the dentate gyrus of hippocampus of transgenic EGFP rats. As a result, after systemic application of doxycycline we have obtained inducible, stable and restricted to the desired brain region expression of EGFR An advantage of this strategy is that the transgene is located in the same genetic milieu in every cell of the transgenic organism. This is crucial to obtain uniform expression of the regulated gene within the target brain structure. Combination of rat transgenesis and lentiviral vectors is a novel approach enabling precise spatiotemporal regulation of genes of interest strictly in the brain structure of choice or in other tissues. genesis 47:274-280, 2009. (C) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19241392
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Amino acids 7 (1994), S. 245-254 
    ISSN: 1438-2199
    Keywords: Amino acids ; AP-1 ; c-fos ; c-jun ; zif/268 ; NGF-IA ; egr-1 ; krox-24 ; NMDA ; Neurons ; Glia ; Neural plasticity ; Excitatory amino acids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary L-glutamate (L-glu) is major excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian central nervous system. Besides short term effects on neuronal activity, L-glu affects also long term neuronal and glial responses. Neuromodulatory function of L-glu may in part be dependent on its ability to activate transcription factors — proteins regulating gene expression through interaction with specific regulatory sequences located in promoter and enhancer gene regions. This paper reviews recent data suggesting that L-glu can selectively stimulate genes encoding transcription factors like zif/268 and fos and jun gene families, as well as the factors themselves both in neurons and astroglia cultured in vitro and brain cells in vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Aging ; Lymphocyte ; Transcription factor ; Transcription factor ; c-fos ; c-fos ; c-jun ; c-jun
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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