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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1424
    Keywords: cell-to-cell junctions ; ionic coupling ; calmodulin ; anticalmodulin drugs ; calcium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary In many cell systems, the permeability of membrane junctions is modulated by the cytoplasmic level of free Ca++. To examine whether the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin is involved in this process, the ability of anticalmodulin drugs to influence the cell-to-cell passage of injected current and an organic tracer was tested using standard intracellular glass microelectrode techniques. Several antipsychotics and local anesthetics were found to block junctional communication in the epidermis of the beetleTenebrio molitor. Treatment of the epidermis with chlorpromazine (0.25 mM) raised intercellular resistance two- to threefold within 20 to 25 min; cell-to-cell passage of electrical current was abolished within 41±5 min. Loss of electrotonic coupling was accompanied by a block in the cell-to-cell movement of the organic tracer carboxyfluorescein. The reaction is fully reversible, with normal electrotonic coupling being restored within 2 to 4 hr. Other antipsychotics and local anesthetics had similar effects on cell coupling. The order of potency found was: trifluoperazine〉thioridazine〉 d-butaclamol〉chlorprothixine=chlorpromazine〉 l-butaclamol〉 dibucaine〉tetracaine. The relative uncoupling potencies of these drugs correlate well with their known ability to inhibit calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase activity. Other anesthetic compounds, procaine and pentobarbital, did not block cell-to-cell communication. Altering the extracellular Ca++ concentration did not affect the rate of uncoupling by antipsychotics, while chelation of extracellular Ca++ with EGTA raised electrotonic coupling. The effect of three metabolic inhibitors on coupling was also examined. Iodoacetate uncoupled the epidermal cells while DNP and cyanide did not. These results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms by which calmodulin may control junctional communication in this tissue.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: genome ; calmodulin ; smooth muscle ; immunohistochemistry ; heart ; development ; protein kinase ; tissue selective ; calcium ; signal transduction ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We report that the genetic locus that encodes vertebrate smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and kinase-related protein (KRP) has a complex arrangement and a complex pattern of expression. Three proteins are encoded by 31 exons that have only one variation, that of the first exon of KRP, and the genomic locus spans approximately 100 kb of DNA. The three proteins can differ in their relative abundance and localization among tissues and with development. MLCK is a calmodulin (CaM) regulated protein kinase that phosphorylates the light chain of myosin II. The chicken has two MLCK isoforms encoded by the MLCK/KRP locus. KRP does not bind CaM and is not a protein kinase. However, KRP binds to and regulates the structure of myosin II. Thus, KRP and MLCK have the same subcellular target, the myosin II molecular motor system. We examined the tissue and cellular localization of KRP and MLCK in the chicken embryo and in adult chicken tissues. We report on the selective localization of KRP and MLCK among and within tissues and on a differential distribution of the proteins between embryonic and adult tissues. The results fill a void in our knowledge about the organization of the MLCK/KRP genetic locus, which appears to be a late evolving regulatory paradigm, and suggest an independent and complex regulation of expression of the gene products from the MLCK/KRP genetic locus that may reflect a basic principle found in other eukaryotic gene clusters that encode functionally linked proteins. J. Cell. Biochem. 70:402-413, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cardiovascular drugs and therapy 1 (1988), S. 621-624 
    ISSN: 1573-7241
    Keywords: calcium ; congestive heart failure ; internal calcium ; calcium overload
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9729
    Keywords: calcium ; fine roots ; nitrogen ; northern hardwood ; nutrient dynamics ; seasonality ; soils ; sulfur ; vegetation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Seasonal dynamics of S, Ca and N were examined at the Huntington Forest, a northern hardwood ecosystem in the central Adirondacks of New York for a period of 34 months (1985–1988). Solute concentrations and fluxes in bulk precipitation, throughfall (TF) and leachates from the forest floor, E horizon and B horizon were quantified. Both above and below-ground elemental fluxes mediated by vegetation (e.g. uptake, litter inputs, and fine roots production) were also determined. The roles of abiotic and biotic processes were ascertained based on both changes in solute concentrations through the strata of the ecosystem as well as differences between dormant and growing seasons. Concentrations of SO4 2−, NO3 −, NH4 + and Ca2+ were greater in TF than precipitation. Forest floor leachates had greater concentrations of SO4 2−, NO3 − + NH4 + and Ca2+ (9, 6 and 77 µeq L−1, respectively) than TF. There were differences in concentrations of ions in leachates from the forest floor between the dormant and growing seasons presumably due to vegetation uptake and microbial immobilization. Concentrations and fluxes of NO3 − and NH; were greatest in early spring followed by a rapid decline which coincided with a demand for N by vegetation in late spring. Vegetation uptake (44.7 kg N ha−1 yr−1 ) could account for the low leaching rates of N03 −. Within the mineral soil, changes with soil depth and the absence of seasonal patterns suggest that cation exchange (Ca+) or anion sorption (SO4 2−) are primarily responsible for regulating solute concentrations. The increase in SO4 2− concentration after leachates passed through the mineral soil may be attributed to desorption of sulfate that was adsorbed during an earlier period when SO4 2− concentrations would have been greater due to elevated S inputs.
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