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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Averrhoa carambola ; Heterostyly Flower organ-specific proteins ; Electrophoresis Carambola/star-fruit
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Floral organs (tepal, stamen, style, including stigma, and ovary) from immature and mature (1 day prior to anthesis) flower buds of pin and thrum morphs of Averrhoa carambola were subjected to one and two-dimensional IEF/SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of organ extracts from mature floral buds showed a number of protein bands common to all organs in both pin and thrum morphs. In the stamen and style, these bands differed in intensity between the two morphs. Under two-dimensional gels, the differences in protein profiles between the two morphs were more distinct in these organs. When compared with polypeptide spots from leaflets, a total of 14 floral organ-specific polypeptides was detected, the majority appearing in the stamen, followed by the style but none in the ovary. In the stamen, most of these polypeptides were detected in both the pin and thrum morphs. However, in the style, a 72-kDa polypeptide was detected exclusively in the pin morph, and this was also the most abundant floral organ-specific polypeptide. Floral organ-specific polypeptides of 45 kDa (detected in stamens of the thrum morph) and 70 kDa (detected in stamen and style of both morphs) were found to bind concanavalin A.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Averrhoa carambola ; Self-incompatibility Heterostyly ; Fluorescence microscopy ; Scanning electron microscopy ; Pollen tube ; Polymorphism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Various combinations of intermorph, selfing and intramorph pollinations were carried out in Averrhoa carambola and the pollinated pistils were observed under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopes in time-course experiments. In both compatible and incompatible pollinations, similar behavior of pollen germination and penetration was observed in the first 4 h after pollination. In compatible intermorph pollination, pollen tubes were found at the base of the transmitting tract of the style at 8 h and 24 h after pollination in both the pin and thrum morphs. With thrum flowers, selfing resulted in pollen tubes being uniformly arrested at the junction between the stigmatic and stylar tissues. Penetration of pollen tubes into the upper portion of style was observed in thrum intramorph pollination and, when the second member was treated as the gynoecial tissue under the same pollination, penetration of tubes was further enhanced. Pin flowers, on selfing, resulted in pollen tube penetration farther down the style than was the case with thrum selfing. Intramorph pollination of pin morph behaved in a similar manner to selfing and was not affected by genotypes. Beside the stamen-style dimorphism, the receptive surface of the cob stigma was larger in pin than thrum flowers. While pin pollen was round, thrum pollen was oblong in shape with pin to thrum ratio on the polar axis being 1.2 and on the equatorial axis 0.8. The stigma of pin morph belonged to the dry type, while that of the thrum resembled the wet type.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Control parameterization ; piecewise constant functions ; linear time-lag systems ; linear terminal constraints ; computational schemes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A computational scheme using the technique of control parameterization is developed for solving a class of optimal control problems involving linear hereditary systems with bounded control region and linear terminal constraints. Several examples have been solved to illustrate the efficiency of the technique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Nonlinear time-lag systems ; linear control constraints ; nonlinear terminal inequality constraints ; conditional gradient methods ; feasible direction methods ; control parametrization ; initial feasible control ; computational schemes ; finite convergence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract A computational algorithm for a class of time-lag optimal control problems involving control and terminal inequality constraints is presented. The convergence properties of the algorithm is also investigated. To test the algorithm, an example is solved.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Control parameterization ; piecewise constant functions ; nonlinear hereditary systems ; linear control constraints ; computational schemes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, a computational scheme using the technique of control parameterization is developed for solving a class of optimal control problems involving nonlinear hereditary systems with linear control constraints. Several examples have been solved to test the efficiency of the technique.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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