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  • 1
    Keywords: VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; IDENTIFICATION ; PREDICTION ; BRCA2 ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; MULTIPLE LOCI
    Abstract: Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with prostate cancer risk which explain a substantial proportion of familial relative risk. These variants can be used to stratify individuals by their risk of prostate cancer. Methods: We genotyped 25 prostate cancer susceptibility loci in 40,414 individuals and derived a polygenic risk score (PRS). We estimated empirical odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer associated with different risk strata defined by PRS and derived age-specific absolute risks of developing prostate cancer by PRS stratum and family history. Results: The prostate cancer risk for men in the top 1% of the PRS distribution was 30.6 (95% CI, 16.4-57.3) fold compared with men in the bottom 1%, and 4.2 (95% CI, 3.2-5.5) fold compared with the median risk. The absolute risk of prostate cancer by age of 85 years was 65.8% for a man with family history in the top 1% of the PRS distribution, compared with 3.7% for a man in the bottom 1%. The PRS was only weakly correlated with serum PSA level (correlation = 0.09). Conclusions: Risk profiling can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk of prostate cancer. The effect size, measured by OR per unit PRS, was higher in men at younger ages and in men with family history of prostate cancer. Incorporating additional newly identified loci into a PRS should improve the predictive value of risk profiles. Impact: We demonstrate that the risk profiling based on SNPs can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk that could have useful implications for targeted prevention and screening programs.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25837820
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  • 2
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; PREDISPOSITION ; ANDROGEN RECEPTOR ; transcriptome ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; HNF1B GENE ; NGEP
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain similar to 38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same region.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26025378
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  • 3
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; PROMOTER ; telomere length ; WIDE ASSOCIATION ; HTERT ; TERT-CLPTM1L LOCUS
    Abstract: Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that encodes TERT. To comprehensively evaluate the association between genetic variation across this region and PrCa, we performed a fine-mapping analysis by genotyping 134 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array or Sequenom MassArray iPlex, followed by imputation of 1094 SNPs in 22 301 PrCa cases and 22 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one of these regions also associated with TERT expression, providing a potential mechanism for predisposition to disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23535824
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: ovalbumin ; CD studies ; guanidine ; urea ; sodium dodecyl sulfate ; conformation ; secondary structure ; denaturation-renaturation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract By simulation of the circular dichroic spectra (Greenfield and Fasman (1969)) and using reference spectra of Chen et al. (1974), native ovalbumin was estimated to contain 33% α-helix, 5% β-structure, and 62% random coil. Ovalbumin resisted conformational changes in solutions of urea and of SDS. However, guanidine induced transition, starting at about 2 M and completing at about 4.5 M. At concentrations exceeding 4.5 M guanidine, ovalbumin existed as 6–7% α-helical, 12–13% β-structure, and 80–81% random coil. Ovalbumin after denaturation in 6 M guanidine or in 8 M urea (incubated at 4°C for 24 hr) did not recover the native conformation but acquired a new conformation in each case, with a somewhat destabilized helical structure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: sulfhydryl-blocked ovalbumin ; secondary structure ; conformation ; circular dichroic studies ; reduced ovalbumin ; denaturation profiles in guanidine, urea, and sodium dodecyl sulfate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Sulfhydryl groups of ovalbumin were chemically modified under denaturing conditions in the absence and presence of dithiothreitol, and effects on the secondary structure of the protein were investigated by circular dichroic (CD) measurements. The contents of α-helix, β-structure, and “random coil” (unordered, nonrepetitive structure) were estimated by simulation of the CD spectra and using the parameters established by Chen et al. The principal findings were these: (1) Modification of the four free sulfhydryl groups [with 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), iodoacetate, or iodoacetamide] caused ovalbumin molecule to unfold partially and to undergo primarily helix-to-β structure transition. (2) Cleavage of the disulfide bond did not lead to a further conformational change in the sulfhydryl-modified ovalbumin. (3) The remaining helical structure existed in a destabilized state with increased chain flexibility, as the modified protein was very susceptible to denaturation by guanidine and urea. (4) Further evidence for increased chain flexibility was provided by the finding that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) induced helix formation in the sulfhydryl-modified, but not native, ovalbumin. And (5), since both nonreduced and reduced proteins, with their sulfhydryl groups blocked, displayed similar transitions in solutions of guanidine, urea, and SDS suggested that the single disulfide bond did not physically constrain the ovalbumin molecule.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Succinylated ovalbumins ; acetylated ovalbumins ; secondary structure ; conformation ; circular dichroism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine the effect of chemical modification of the ε-amino groups on the secondary structure of ovalbumin, we prepared six acetylated (17, 36, 54, 70, 82, and 98%) and four succinylated derivatives (25, 50, 72, and 97%) of the protein. Native ovalbumin and the acylated derivatives were homogeneous as revealed by the electrophoretic pattern. The UV-absorption and fluorescence spectra changed progressively with the extent of modification. However, circular dichroic (CD) studies indicated that acylation of 15 of the 20 lysine residues had little effect on the secondary structure of ovalbumin. Acylation of the remaining five lysine residues resulted in a fairly severe change in the secondary structure. The α-helical content decreased from about 31% in the native state to 16.5% in the 97% succinylated ovalbumin and to 21.5% in the 98% acetylated derivative. A comparison of these data with the spectral and hydrodynamic data of Qasim and Salahuddin (1978) suggested that the secondary structure of ovalbumin is more resistant to acylation than is the tertiary structure and, thus, the tertiary and the secondary structures are, to some extent, mutually independent. Raising thepH to 11.2 did not alter the secondary structure of ovalbumin and increasing the ionic strength by more than 20-fold did not reverse the loss of helical structure in 97% succinylated protein. These two observations suggest that the change in secondary structure upon maximal acylation may not only involve electrostatic effects, but also certain other factors, such as steric hindrance due to the entering bulky groups.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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