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  • diabetes  (6)
  • Springer  (6)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
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  • Springer  (6)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Hyperosmolar diabetic coma ; erythrocytes ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a study of 10 diabetic patients, each of whom was in a severely decompensated state, notable alteration of blood flow properties was observed in those six patients who were hyperosmolar. In this form of diabetic decompensation, whole blood filtration was distinctly impaired. The additional impairment was shown to be due to an accumulation of solute within the erythrocytes occurring as a consequence of hyper-osmolarity. The alterations in erythrocytes were revealed by Coulter blood count abnormalities and confirmed by osmotic fragility studies. When biochemical improvement was achieved in these patients, rapid resolution of the erythrocyte abnormalities occurred. Microvascular ischaemia due to such erythrocyte alterations may be a possible explanation for the characteristic cerebral disturbances of the hyperosmolar diabetic state. Altered blood flow properties would also promote vascular thrombosis, a common terminal event in the hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome with associated 50 per cent mortality. An improved design of the insulin and fluid replacement therapy for patients in hyperosmolar diabetic coma might be based on the findings of these and further studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Glycaemic index ; leguminous seeds ; low blood glucose rise ; diabetes ; diabetic diet ; fat ; sugars ; protein
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Recently diabetic patients have been encouraged to increase their carbohydrate intake, but exact details of which foods to use are lacking. To determine whether sufficiently large differences existed to justify more specific dietary advice, we compared the glycaemic responses to 50 g carbohydrate portions of different foods, taken as breakfast test meals by groups of five to seven diabetic patients. Two-to threefold differences were seen amongst the 15 foods tested. The glycaemic responses for spaghetti, ‘All-bran’, rice and beans were significantly below those for bread, while ‘Cornflakes’ were above. Factors predicted to influence this were without effect, including: substituting wholemeal for white bread, increasing substantially the simple sugars (using ‘All-bran’ or bananas instead of wholemeal bread) and doubling meal protein by adding cottage cheese to bread. Paired comparisons of the glycaemic response to the five legumes with those of the seven other starchy foods (breads, spaghetti, rice, Cornflakes, oatmeal porridge and potatoes) showed that the mean peak rise in blood glucose concentration and mean area under the glucose curve after beans were 23 and 28% lower, respectively, than the mean for the other foods (p 〈 0.001). Such results suggest a potentially valuable role for dried leguminous seeds in carbohydrate exchanges for individuals with impaired carbohydrate tolerance. These large differences in the blood glucose response to different food cannot at present be predicted directly from tables of chemical composition. Nevertheless, physiological testing may both aid in understanding the factors responsible and help selection of the appropriate carbohydrate foods for the diabetic diet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Artificial endocrine pancreas ; capillaryunit ; xenogeneic ; pancreatic islets ; transplantation ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An implantable artificial endocrine pancreas consisting of a coiled single acrylic copolymer capillary surrounded by rat islets (1000/kg body weight) was implanted in 10 streptozotocin-alloxan diabetic dogs. About 5 h following implantation plasma glucose decreased from an initial mean value of 350 mg/dl to 150 mg/dl, and then to 100 mg/dl at 12 h. Plasma insulin increased to a mean of 39 mU/l (range 23–83 mU/l) at 5 h in the recipient animals. In addition a much improved plasma glucose disappearance rate (K = 1.9 ±0.3) with slightly delayed insulin responses was seen after intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed in 4 dogs at 7, 8, 10 and 18 h following implantation. These findings suggest that xenogeneic rat islets implanted as an artificial endocrine pancreas can improve glucose metabolism in the diabetic dog.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 20 (1981), S. 583-584 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Coulter mean red cell volume ; diabetes ; blood glucose ; glycosylated haemoglobin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The Coulter mean red cell volume was found to be significantly elevated in a sample of 100 diabetic patients compared with 200 normal subjects (p 〈 0.01). There was no correlation between the mean red cell volume level and the type of diabetes, its method of treatment or degree of control as measured by random blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Aldose reductase inhibitors ; 1,2,4-triazolidine-3,5-diones ; 3,5-isoxazolidinediones ; diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 1,2,4-Triazolidine-3,5-diones and the 3,5-isoxazolidinedione were, observed to be, potent inhibitors of rat lens aldose reductase activity. In vivo in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, selected agents at 20 mg/kg/day, orally for 21 days reduced significantly the sorbitol levels of rbc, lens and sciatic nerves, suggesting that these derivatives may have some usefulness to treat clinical complications of diabetes mellitus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Oxidative stress ; diabetes ; aging ; advanced glycation endproducts ; lipid peroxidation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Many approaches have been undertaken to understand Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the clincally most important factor determining the onset and progression of the disease. However, there is increasing evidence that the previously so-called "secondary factors" such as a disturbed glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and formation of "advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs) and their interaction in a vicious cycle are also important for the onset and progression of AD. AGEs are protein modifications that contribute to the formation of the histopathological and biochemical hallmarks of AD: amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and activated microglia. Oxidative modifications are formed by a complex cascade of dehydration, oxidation and cyclisation reactions, subsequent to a non-enzymatic reaction of sugars with amino groups of proteins. Accumulation of AGE-crosslinked proteins throughout life is a general phenomenon of ageing. However, AGEs are more than just markers of ageing since they can also exert adverse biologic effects on tissues and cells, including the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to the upregulation of cytokine and free radical production (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is involved in various divergent events leading to cell damage, including an increase in membrane rigidity, DNA strand breaks and an impairment in glucose uptake. In addition, other age-related metabolic changes such as depletion of antioxidants or decreased energy production by a disturbed glucose metabolism diminish the ability of the cell to cope with the effects of radical-induced membrane, protein and DNA damage. With our improving understanding of the molecular basis for the clinical symptoms of dementia, it is hoped that the elucidation of the etiologic causes, particularly the positive feedback loops involving radical damage and a reduced glucose metabolism, will help to develop novel "neuroprotective" treatment strategies able to interrupt this vicious cycle of oxidative stress and energy shortage in AD.
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