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  • drug transport  (2)
  • Chemotherapy  (1)
  • Exotoxin  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: P-glycoprotein ; multidrug resistance ; MDR ; ATPase ; drug transport ; ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Chemotherapy, though it remains one of the front-line weapons used to treat human cancer, is often ineffective due to drug resistance mechanisms manifest in tumor cells. One common pattern of drug resistance, characterized by simultaneous resistance to multiple amphipathic, but otherwise structurally dissimilar anticancer drugs, is termed multidrug resistance. Multidrug resistance in various model systems, covering the phylogenetic range from bacteria to man, can be conferred by mammalian P-glycoproteins (PGPs), often termed multidrug transporters. PGPs are 170-kD polytopic membrane proteins, predicted to consist of two homologous halves, each with six membrane spanning regions and one ATP binding site. They are members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, and are known to function biochemically as energy-dependent drug efflux pumps. However, much remains to be learned about PGP structure-function relationships, membrane topology, posttranslational regulation, and bioenergetics of drug transport. Much of the recent progress in the study of the human and mouse PGPs has come from heterologous expression systems which offer the benefits of ease of genetic selection and manipulation, and/or short generation times of the organism in which PGPs are expressed, and/or high-level expression of recombinant PGP. Here we review recent studies of PGP inE. coli, baculovirus, and yeast systems and evaluate their utility for the study of PGPs, as well as other higher eukaryotic membrane proteins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Epidermal growth factor ; Exotoxin ; Cancer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFα)-pseudomonas exotoxin-40 (PE40) is a chimeric protein consisting of an N-terminal TGFα domain fused to a C-terminal 40-kDa segment of the pseudomonas exotoxin A protein. TGFα-PE40 exhibits the receptor binding activity of TGFα and the cell killing activity of PE40. In the current study, we report that a modified TGFα-PE40 derivative significantly prolongs the survival of nude mice bearing tumors derived from cell lines which express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, the therapeutic benefit of this protein is mediated by specific binding to the EGF receptor. These results indicate that a therapeutic window exists in vivo for the use of some growth factor-toxin fusion proteins as anticancer agents.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: Chemotherapy ; ATP ; drug transport ; colchicine ; actinomycin D ; doxorubicin ; vinblastine ; vincristine ; introns ; evolution ; P-glycoprotein ; transmembrane domains ; MDR1 gene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Multidrug resistance in animal cells is defined as the simultaneous resistance to a variety of compounds which appear to be structurally and mechanistically unrelated. One type of multidrug resistance is characterized by the decreased accumulation of hydrophobic natural product drugs, a phenotype which is mediated by an ATP-dependent integral membrane multidrug transporter termed P-glycoprotein or P170. The gene coding for P170 is calledMDR. The nucleotide-binding domain of P-glycoprotein shares sequence homology with a family of bacterial permease ATP-binding components. In addition, P170 as a whole is structurally very similar to a number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins believed to be involved in transport activities. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the molecular biology and clinical significance ofMDR expression and P-glycoprotein transport activity, as well as some theories about the function of this protein in normal cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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