Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary From July 1, 1977 to July 1, 1986, 3,503 incident cases of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus were registered in the Swedish childhood diabetes study. Using data from this register and from a case-referent study, including all incident Type 1 diabetic children in Sweden during one year and, for each patient, two referent children matched according to age, sex and county, we have studied the associations between Type 1 diabetes and familial Type 1 and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, thyroid, adrenal, allergic, rheumatic, heart and bowel disease. The mean annual incidence per 100,000 during the nine year period was 25.1 for boys and 23.5 for girls. In 8.5% of the patients, one parent had Type 1 diabetes, 73% of whom were fathers. Fifty-six of the patients (1.7%) had a parent with Type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of parental Type 1 diabetes tended to be higher in patients with younger age at onset; whereas, the opposite was found for patients with parental Type 2 diabetes. In the case-referent study, the age-adjusted odds ratio for Type 1 diabetes when a first and/or second degree relative had Type 1 diabetes was 5.5 (95% confidence limits 4.0–7.7), and in accordance with the findings of the case register, the odds ratio tended to be highest in patients with the youngest age at onset. Season at onset of the patients was not associated with parental Type 1 diabetes. The odds ratio for Type 1 diabetes was significantly increased 3.3 (95% confidence limits: 2.3–4.6) when Type 2 diabetes was reported in relatives (three generations). Odds ratios were also significantly increased (p(0.05) when thyroid or rheumatic diseases were reported among relatives. It is concluded that although the majority of incident Type 1 diabetic children lack family history, parental Type 1 diabetes may influence the age at onset of the disease but has no effect on sex distribution of these children. An increased risk for Type 1 diabetes in children is also indicated when Type 2 diabetes, (non-insulin-treated) thyroid or rheumatic disease is reported in relatives.
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