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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes ; childhood ; social environment ; perinatal factors ; breast-feeding ; epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Using the Swedish childhood diabetes register, a nationwide, case-referent study was performed from September 1, 1985 to August 31, 1986. Based on the information from a mailed questionnaire sent to all incident diabetic children and for each diabetic child — two referent children matched according to age, sex, and county, we have analysed perinatal events and aspects of the social environment as possible risk factors for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes in childhood. A significantly larger proportion of the mothers of the diabetic children were older than 40 years compared to those of the referent children (33% and 24%, p=0.01 respectively). A smaller percentage of mothers of the diabetic children had a high educational level compared to mothers of referent children (10% and 15%, p=0.03 respectively) and 39% of the fathers of the diabetic children were manual workers compared to 31% of the fathers of referent children (p=0.03). Perinatal events did not differ between diabetic and referent children. In children 0–6 years, the duration of breast-feeding was significantly shorter in diabetic children than among referent children (median duration for diabetic children 5 months compared to 6 months for referent children p=0.03). When considering the presence of Type 1 diabetes among relatives, maternal age over 40 years, low educational level of the mother, and the father being a manual worker as risk factors, the presence of 1 to 4 of any of these risk factors increased the relative risk for Type 1 diabetes cumulatively from 1.2–7.5. In conclusion, breast-feeding habits and probably other factors dependent on maternal age and the social status of the family may further increase the risk for Type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible individuals.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes ; heredity ; epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary From July 1, 1977 to July 1, 1986, 3,503 incident cases of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus were registered in the Swedish childhood diabetes study. Using data from this register and from a case-referent study, including all incident Type 1 diabetic children in Sweden during one year and, for each patient, two referent children matched according to age, sex and county, we have studied the associations between Type 1 diabetes and familial Type 1 and Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, thyroid, adrenal, allergic, rheumatic, heart and bowel disease. The mean annual incidence per 100,000 during the nine year period was 25.1 for boys and 23.5 for girls. In 8.5% of the patients, one parent had Type 1 diabetes, 73% of whom were fathers. Fifty-six of the patients (1.7%) had a parent with Type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of parental Type 1 diabetes tended to be higher in patients with younger age at onset; whereas, the opposite was found for patients with parental Type 2 diabetes. In the case-referent study, the age-adjusted odds ratio for Type 1 diabetes when a first and/or second degree relative had Type 1 diabetes was 5.5 (95% confidence limits 4.0–7.7), and in accordance with the findings of the case register, the odds ratio tended to be highest in patients with the youngest age at onset. Season at onset of the patients was not associated with parental Type 1 diabetes. The odds ratio for Type 1 diabetes was significantly increased 3.3 (95% confidence limits: 2.3–4.6) when Type 2 diabetes was reported in relatives (three generations). Odds ratios were also significantly increased (p(0.05) when thyroid or rheumatic diseases were reported among relatives. It is concluded that although the majority of incident Type 1 diabetic children lack family history, parental Type 1 diabetes may influence the age at onset of the disease but has no effect on sex distribution of these children. An increased risk for Type 1 diabetes in children is also indicated when Type 2 diabetes, (non-insulin-treated) thyroid or rheumatic disease is reported in relatives.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 34 (1991), S. 176-181 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; childhood ; medicines ; infectious disease ; vaccinations ; epidemiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a nationwide incident case referent study we have evaluated vaccinations, early and recent infections and the use of medicines as possible risk determinants for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood. A total of 339 recently onset diabetic and 528 referent children, age 0–14 years, were included. Information about infections was collected from a mailed questionnaire and about vaccinations from childhood health care centres and schools. When vaccinations were considered as possible risk factors for diabetes, a significant decrease in relative risk estimated as odds ratio (OR) was noted for measles vaccination (OR=0.69; 95% confidence limits 0.48–0.98). For vaccination against tuberculosis, smallpox, tetanus, whooping cough, rubella and mumps no significant effect on OR for diabetes was found. The odds ratios for Type 1 diabetes for children exposed to 0, 1–2 or over 2 infections during the last year before diagnosis of diabetes revealed a linear increase (OR = 1.0,1.96 and 2.55 for 0, 1–2 and over 2 infections, respectively). The trend was still significant when standardized for possible confounders such as age and sex of the children, maternal age and education and intake of antibiotics and analgetics. In conclusion, a protective effect of measles vaccination for Type 1 diabetes in childhood is indicated as well as a possible causal relationship between the onset of the disease and the total load of recent infections.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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