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  • human  (2)
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism
Keywords
Years
  • 1
    Keywords: brain ; CANCER ; human ; PHENOTYPES ; STRESS ; INSIGHTS ; CONSUMPTION ; GLUTAMATE ; DRINKING ; DEPENDENCE ; WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Alcoholism ; drug addiction ; genome-wide association study (GWAS) ; GLUTAMATERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION ; imaging genetics ; NALTREXONE ; QTL analysis ; TRANSPORTER GENE
    Abstract: Alcohol drinking is highly prevalent in many cultures and contributes to the global burden of disease. In fact, it was shown that alcohol constitutes 3.2% of all worldwide deaths in the year 2006 and is linked to more than 60 diseases, including cancers, cardiovascular diseases, liver cirrhosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, injuries and foetal alcohol syndrome. Alcoholism, which has been proven to have a high genetic load, is one potentially fatal consequence of chronic heavy alcohol consumption, and may be regarded as one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. The aim of the integrated genome research network 'Genetics of Alcohol Addiction'-which is a German inter-/trans-disciplinary life science consortium consisting of molecular biologists, behavioural pharmacologists, system biologists with mathematicians, human geneticists and clinicians-is to better understand the genetics of alcohol addiction by identifying and validating candidate genes and molecular networks involved in the aetiology of this pathology. For comparison, addictive behaviour to other drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine) is studied as well. Here, we present an overview of our research consortium, the current state of the art on genetic research in the alcohol field, and list finally several of our recently published research highlights. As a result of our scientific efforts, better insights into the molecular and physiological processes underlying addictive behaviour will be obtained, new targets and target networks in the addicted brain will be defined, and subsequently, novel and individualized treatment strategies for our patients will be delivered
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; microarray ; PROTEINS ; TISSUE ; HEART ; MICE ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; REDUCTION ; TRANSPLANTATION ; DOMAIN ; mechanisms ; T cell ; T-CELL ; knockout ; IDENTIFICATION ; gene expression ; affymetrix ; DAMAGE ; WILD-TYPE ; arteries ; WALL ; REJECTION ; ARTERY ; METALLOPROTEASE ; RECEPTORS ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; chemokine ; ARCHITECTURE ; MATRIX ; INFILTRATION ; MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES ; CCR5 ; ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION ; CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS
    Abstract: Experimental and human organ transplant studies suggest an important role for chemokine (C-C-motif) receptor-5 (CCR5) in the development of acute and chronic allograft rejection. Because early transplant damage can predispose allografts to chronic dysfunction, we sought to identify potential pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to allograft damage by using wild-type and Ccr5-deficient mice as recipients of fully MHC-mismatched heart and carotid-artery allografts. Gene expression in rejecting heart allografts was analyzed 2 and 6 days after transplantation using Affymetrix GeneChips. Microarray analysis led to identification of four metalloproteinase genes [matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)3, Mmp12, Mmp13 and a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain (Adam)8] with significantly diminished intragraft mRNA expression in Ccr5-deficient mice at day 6. Accordingly, allografts from Ccr5-deficient mice showed less tissue remodeling and hence better preservation of the myocardial architecture compared with allografts from wild-type recipients. Moreover, survival of cardiac allografts was significantly increased in Ccr5-deficient mice. Carotid artery allografts from Ccr5-deficient recipients showed better tissue preservation, and significant reduction of neointima formation and CD3(+) T cell infiltration. Ccr5 appears to play an important role in transplant-associated arteriosclerosis that may involve metalloproteinase-mediated vessel wall remodeling. We conclude that early tissue remodeling may be a critical feature in the predisposition of allografts to the development of chronic dysfunction
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15307189
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-09-03
    Description: The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) critically controls behavioral adaptation to stress and is causally linked to emotional disorders. Using neurochemical and genetic tools, we determined that CRHR1 is expressed in forebrain glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid-containing (GABAergic) neurons as well as in midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Via specific CRHR1 deletions in glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic cells, we found that the lack of CRHR1 in forebrain glutamatergic circuits reduces anxiety and impairs neurotransmission in the amygdala and hippocampus. Selective deletion of CRHR1 in midbrain dopaminergic neurons increases anxiety-like behavior and reduces dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex. These results define a bidirectional model for the role of CRHR1 in anxiety and suggest that an imbalance between CRHR1-controlled anxiogenic glutamatergic and anxiolytic dopaminergic systems might lead to emotional disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Refojo, Damian -- Schweizer, Martin -- Kuehne, Claudia -- Ehrenberg, Stefanie -- Thoeringer, Christoph -- Vogl, Annette M -- Dedic, Nina -- Schumacher, Marion -- von Wolff, Gregor -- Avrabos, Charilaos -- Touma, Chadi -- Engblom, David -- Schutz, Gunther -- Nave, Klaus-Armin -- Eder, Matthias -- Wotjak, Carsten T -- Sillaber, Inge -- Holsboer, Florian -- Wurst, Wolfgang -- Deussing, Jan M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Sep 30;333(6051):1903-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1202107. Epub 2011 Sep 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21885734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/metabolism ; Animals ; *Anxiety ; Behavior, Animal ; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/metabolism ; Dopamine/*metabolism ; Fear ; Glutamic Acid/*metabolism ; Hippocampus/metabolism ; Male ; Memory ; Mesencephalon ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Activity ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism ; Prosencephalon/cytology/metabolism ; Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & ; inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism ; Synaptic Transmission ; Ventral Tegmental Area/metabolism ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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