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  • Immunohistochemistry  (4)
  • immunocytochemistry  (4)
  • Springer  (8)
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  • Springer  (8)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Endocrine tissues ; Endocrine tumours ; Cytoskeleton ; Immunohistochemistry ; Gel-electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The presence and distribution of intermediate filament proteins, such as cytokeratins, vimentin, neurofilament proteins and glial fibrillary acidic protein were assessed immunohistochemically in pituitary adenomas, medullary thyroid carcinomas, endocrine pancreatic tumours, gastric, intestinal and bronchial carcinoids, parathyroid adenomas, pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas and related non-neoplastic tissues. In some cases, immunohistochemical results were correlated with cytoskeletal proteins as analysed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Cytokeratin antibodies with broad range of immunoreactivity (i.e. to murine liver cytokeratin component D) reacted with epithelial cells in all non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related neuroendocrine tumours studied, except for adrenal medulla, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, independently of hormone production and biological behaviour. In contrast, antibodies to epidermis-derived cytokeratins failed to stain endocrine tissues and tumours. Paranuclear cytokeratin accumulations were seen in bronchial, gastric, and intestinal carcinoids and seem to be a common feature of neuroendocrine tumours. One-and two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of non-neoplastic endocrine tissues and related tumours revealed two major keratin polypeptides corresponding to cytokeratins No. 8 and 18 of the cytokeratin catalog of human cells (Moll et al. 1982). According to this cytokeratin polypeptide composition, endocrine tissues and related tumours conform to the “simple type” of epithelia. Vimentin-related immunoreactivity was restricted to stromal cells and to folliculo-stellate cells in normal pituitary gland, Schwann cells in carcinoids and satellite cells in normal adrenal medulla and in pheochromocytomas. Neurofilament protein- (70 kD)-antibodies only stained nerve fibers in normal tissues and at the periphery of carcinoid tumour cell complexes, and, to a variable degree, cells in nontumorous adrenal medulla, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Furthermore, neurofilament reactivity was observed along with cytokeratin expression in two bronchial carcinoids.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Thyroid ; C Cells ; Peptides ; Immunohistochemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary C cells of thyroid are known to express a variety of products beside calcitonin. These include the peptides PDN21 (katacalcin), calcitoningene related peptide (CGRP), bombesin and somatostatin. The expression of these products has been investigated by immunohistochemistry of thyroid tissue in six age ranges from fetal to late adult life. PDN 21 was found to have co-expression with calcitonin. CGRP and bombesin both demonstrated an age-related increase in numbers and intensity of cells stained. Somatostatin immunoreactivity was limited to small numbers of cells.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Neuropeptides ; Amygdala ; Immunohistochemistry ; Schizophrenia ; Huntington's chorea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The location of the neuropeptides methionine-enkephalin (ME), neurotensin (NT), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) within the amygdaloid complex of healthy human individuals, schizophrenics and patients suffering from Huntington's chorea was studied qualitatively by means of immunohistochemistry. VIP-like immunoreactivity (IR) was present predominantly in a dense cluster of fibers and terminals in the central amygdaloid nucleus. ME-IR was observed in fibers, terminals and cell bodies in the same subnucleus, exhibiting a characteristical distribution pattern. NT-positive cell bodies were situated within the center of the central amygdaloid nucleus, fibers and terminals being encountered mainly at the periphery. NPY-IR was found to be evenly distributed throughout the amygdala. Distribution and staining intensity of ME, NPY and NT in the amygdala showed no qualitatively recognizable difference between the normal and schizophrenic specimens, whereas VIP-IR appeared to be slightly increased in the central amygdaloid nucleus of schizophrenics. In the choreic cases, the considerably shrunken amygdala exhibited only very low staining intensity of the four investigated neuropeptides.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Anterograde tracing ; axonal transport ; immunocytochemistry ; neuropathways ; peptide-containing nerve ; retrograde tracing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The various combinations of axonal transport tracing and immunocytochemistry used for mapping pathways of peptide-containing nerves, and in particular those of the peripheral nervous system, are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. The applications and results presented illustrate the future potential value of this approach.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: VIP ; radioimmunoassay ; immunocytochemistry ; eyes ; urinary bladder ; prediabetes ; diabetic Chinese hamsters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The eyes and urinary bladder of non-diabetic, prediabetic and diabetic Chinese hamsters were evaluated by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry to determine the content and distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The average concentration of VIP was increased in the eyes of all diabetic (pmol/g = 68%, pmol/organ = 50%) and prediabetic (pmol/g = 152%, pmol/organ = 115%) hamsters compared with age-matched non-diabetic animals. Immunocytochemistry showed that the elevation of VIP was primarily related to greater intensity of fluorescence of the nerve fibres in the vasculature of the choroid. The average content of VIP in the urinary bladder was greater in diabetic animals only on the basis of pmol/organ (135%) and in prediabetics on the basis of pmol/g (87%) compared with non-diabetic animals. Qualitative immunocytochemistry suggested that the elevated level of VIP was related to a larger distribution of nerve fibres in the urinary bladder of diabetic hamsters. The high level of VIP in the eyes and urinary bladder of diabetic and prediabetic hamsters is an interesting observation which should receive further study to determine whether it is an aetiological agent underlying the pathogenesis of ophthalmic complications and neurogenic bladder or the result of some pathological process which affects these organs.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy ; skin ; immunocytochemistry ; neuropeptides ; neurophysiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Immunocytochemistry for the general neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 and four neuropeptides (calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y) was performed on 20 skin biopsy specimens from 19 diabetic patients, age range 20–75 years, 17 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) and 3 Type 1 (insulin-dependent). Fifteen specimens were from the lower limb, 3 from the upper limb und 2 from the abdominal wall. Seven subjects had lower limb neurophysiological tests. All but one specimen showed reduced protein gene product 9.5 and neuropeptide immunoreactivity. Reduced protein gene product 9.5 and neuropeptide immunoreactivity was found in specimens taken from the abdominal wall and hand as well as those from the leg, and also in specimens from patients undergoing amputation for peripheral vascular disease. In general, the greater the number of abnormal neurophysiological tests, the greater the extent of neuronal abnormalities. Three patients with normal tests had abnormalities of dermal innervation. While these changes are also found in other axonal neuropathies, in the absence of other causes of peripheral nerve disease and of macrovascular disease, immunocytochemistry of skin biopsies may have a role in the assessment of diabetic neuropathy and its response to treatment.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 43 (1987), S. 723-724 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Autonomic/sensory nerves ; chromatography ; endocrine cells ; enzymes ; immunocytochemistry ; neuropeptides ; neurotransmitters ; processing of peptides ; radioimmunoassay ; regulatory peptides ; quantification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Neuronal markers ; Neuropeptides ; Immunohistochemistry ; Heart innervation ; Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The innervation and myocardial cells of the human atrial appendage were investigated by means of immunocytochemical and ultrastructural techniques using both tissue sections and whole mount preparations. A dense innervation of the myocardium, blood vessels and endocardium was revealed with antisera to general neuronal (protein gene product 9.5 and synaptophysin) and Schwann cell markers (S-100). The majority of nerve fibres possessed neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity and were found associated with myocardial cells, around small arteries and arterioles at the adventitial-medial border and forming a plexus in the endocardium. Subpopulations of nerve fibres displayed immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide. In whole-mount preparations of endocardium, substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivities were found to coexist in the same varicose nerve terminals. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of numerous varicose terminals associated with myocardial, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity was localised to large electron-dense secretory vesicles in nerve terminals which also contained numerous small vesicles. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity occurred exclusively in myocardial cells where it was localised to large secretory vesicles. The human atrial appendage comprises a neuroendocrine complex of peptidecontaining nerves and myocardial cells producing ANP.
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