Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
glucose tolerance test
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary The plasma insulin or C-peptide response to a 90-min constant glucose infusion 5 mg · kg ideal body weight−1·min−1 provides Beta-cell assessment comparable to more intensive methods. In 14 diet-treated Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects and 12 non-diabetic subjects, plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations gave near linear plots against simultaneous glucose values. The ‘glucose-insulin and glucose-C-peptide vectors’ (G-I and G-C vectors), could be extrapolated to predict insulin and C-peptide levels during a 12 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Predicted concentrations correlated with clamp concentrations, r = 0.94 and r = 0.98 respectively, p〈0.001, validating the vectors as empirical glucose dose-response curves. The vector slopes correlated highly with % Beta, a mathematical model-derived measure of Beta-cell function using constant infusion of glucose model assessment, Spearman r = 0.95 and 0.93 for insulin and C-peptide, respectively. G-I vector slopes in 21 diet-treated Type 2 diabetic subjects with fasting glucose (mean +1 SD) 7.5±2,3 mmol/1, were lower than in 28 non-diabetic subjects, (geometric mean, 1 SD range, 8.4 pmol/mmol (3.3–21.0) and 25.1 pmol/mmol (14.3–44.1), p〈0.001, respectively), indicating an impaired Beta-cell response. The G-I vector slopes correlated with obesity in both groups (r = 0.54 p〈0.02 and 0.72, p〈0.001 respectively), and, in 15 non-diabetic subjects, correlated inversely with insulin sensitivity as measured by a euglycaemic clamp (r = −0.66, p〈0.01).Thus,Beta-cell function needs to be interpreted in relation to obesity/insulin resistance and, taking obesity into account, only 4 of 21 diabetic patients had Betacell function (G-I vector slope) in the non-diabetic range. The fasting plasma glucose in the diabetic subjects correlated inversely with the obesity-corrected G-I and G-C vector slopes (partial r = −0.57, p 〈0.01 and −0.86, p〈0.001, respectively). The insulin or C-peptide response to the glucose infusion provides a direct empirical measure of the Beta-cell function, which can be interpreted in relation to obesity or to insulin resistance to assess underlying pancreatic responsiveness.
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