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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Ourebia ourebi ; Bovidae ; mammalian semiochemicals ; mammalian pheromones ; exocrine secretion ; preorbital secretion ; dimethyl disulfide derivatization ; skipped dienes ; chemical-ionization mass spectrometry ; NMR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in conjunction with ancillary techniques such as chemical ionization with different reactant gases, determination of the position of double bonds by means of dimethyl disulfide derivatization, and finally gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric comparison with authentic synthetic material, 75 constituents were identified in the preorbital secretion of the male oribi,Ourebia ourebi. The secretion contains compounds with long-chain, unbranched structures similar to those found in many other preorbital secretions but with a finite volatility range, in contrast to the seemingly endlessly increasing chain lengths typical of other preorbital secretions.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Raphicerus melanotis ; mammalian semiochemicals ; mammalian pheromones ; exocrine secretion ; preorbital secretion ; double bond localization ; mass spectrometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Using electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectrometry with methane and nitric oxide as reactant gases in conjunction with mass spectral analysis of the dimethyl disulfide derivatives of unsaturated constituents, 51 compounds have been identified in addition to the compounds previously found in the preorbital secretion of the grysbokRaphicerus melanotis. The compounds identified are saturated, monounsaturated, and diunsaturated alcohols and formates, saturated and monounsaturated aldehydes, saturated carboxylic acids,γ- andδ-lactones, alkyl methyl sulfides, andβ-hydroxyalkyl acetates. All of these compounds have unbranched structures. The constituent previously incorrectly identified as (Z)-5-tetradecen-1-ol, was found to consist of the coeluting (Z)-7- and (Z)-8-tetradecenols.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Oreotragus oreotragus ; klipspringer ; mammalian semiochemicals ; mammalian pheromones ; exocrine secretion ; preorbital secretion ; controlled release ; proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The ketones 3-pentanone, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-hexanone, and the esters ethyl propanoate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, and 2-methylpropyl propanoate were identified as the only volatile organic constituents of the preorbital secretion of the klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus. These compounds are considerably more volatile than those found in the preorbital secretions of other antelopes belonging to the tribe Antelopini. More than 50% of the preorbital secretion consists of proteinaceous material, which probably acts as a controlled-release substance in retarding the evaporation of the volatile constituents of the secretion from territorial marks.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Raphicerus campestris ; mammalian semiochemicals ; mammalian pheromones ; exocrine secretion ; preorbital secretion ; territorial marking
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In a study aimed primarily at qualitative comparison of the organic constituents of the preorbital secretion of the steenbok, Raphicerus campestris, with those previously found in the preorbital secretion of the grysbok, R. melanotis, 109 compounds were identified in the secretion of the steenbok. Although the secretions from the two antelope are similar in that they are mostly long-chain, unbranched, saturated and unsaturated alcohols and various derivatives of these alcohols, only 22 of the identified compounds are present in both secretions. This is a small percentage of the more than 260 compounds present in the secretion of the steenbok, which is much more complex than that of the grysbok.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Damaliscus dorcas ; mammalian semiochemicals ; mammalian pheromones ; exocrine secretions ; preorbital secretions ; chemical communication ; mass spectrometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The 42 compounds identified in the pale yellow preorbital secretions of the bontebok, Damaliscus dorcas dorcas, and the blesbok, D. d. phillipsi, include acetic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, (E)-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid, benzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, saturated and unsaturated long-chain carboxylic acids, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, saturated and unsaturated, unbranched, long-chain alcohols and aldehydes, 2-heptanone, pentane, heptane, pepiritone, dimethylsulfone, isopropyl tetradecanoate, isopropyl hexadecanoate, hexadecyl acetate, δ-lactones, cholesterol, α-tocopherol, and squalene. Some qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the secretions of males and females of both subspecies.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Damaliscus dorcas ; mammalian semiochemicals ; mammalian pheromones ; exocrine secretions ; interdigital secretions ; chemical communication ; mass spectrometry ; NMR
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In addition to the nine compounds identified in the interdigital secretion of the bontebok, Damaliscus dorcas dorcas, in a previous study, 76 compounds belonging to different compound types, were identified in the interdigital secretions of the bontebok and the blesbok, D. d. phillipsi. These compounds include alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, terpenoids, γ-lactones, an isopropyl ester, long-chain hydroxyesters, 2-substituted pyridines, phenols, steroids, and dimethylsulfone. No qualitative differences were found between secretions from the two sexes or from animals from different habitats. Although no attempt was made to correlate territorial behavior or other behavioral phenomena with the qualitative composition of interdigital secretions from individual animals, available information seems to indicate that quantitative differences probably do not have a major semiochemical function. Only two species of bacteria, Bacillus brevis and Planococcus citreus, were found in the interdigital pouches of male and female members of the two subspecies, regardless of the habitat of the animals. B. brevis synthesized, among other unidentified constituents, (Z)-3-penten-2-ol, 2-hexanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, tetradecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, and isopropyl hexadecanoate in vitro, while P. citreus produced, among others, the γ-lactones dodecan-4-olide and (Z)-6-dodecen-4-olide, which is one of the major constituents of the interdigital secretions of both subspecies. Some components of the interdigital secretions are not present in the interdigital glandular tissue, and the possibility is discused that these compounds could be produced by microbiological activity in the interdigital pouch.
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