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  • mangrove  (5)
  • Springer  (5)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
Collection
Publisher
  • Springer  (5)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
  • Blackwell Science Pty
  • Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
Years
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hydrobiologia 295 (1995), S. 231-241 
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: mangrove ; soil/sediment ; wastewater ; sink ; nutrients ; heavy metal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Soil column leaching experiments were conducted to assess the retention of nutrients and heavy metals in two types of mangrove soils receiving strong wastewater throughout a period of 5 months. NH4 +-N was the dominant form of nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were in relatively low concentrations in all leachate collected. The concentrations of NH4 +-N in leachate collected from columns packed with Sai Keng of Hong Kong mangrove soil were higher than those packed with soils collected from Shenzhen of China. The leachate NH4 +-N contents of Shenzhen columns were significantly lower than that of the synthetic wastewater even at the end of the experimental period, indicating Shenzhen soils had very high capacity to bind nitrogen, and the amount of ammonium added from wastewater did not exceed the binding capacity of mangrove soil. The data also suggest that soils collected from Shenzhen mangrove swamp had higher capacity in retaining wastewater nitrogen than the Sai Keng soils. In contrast, leachate from Sai Keng columns had significantly lower ortho-P contents than those from Shenzhen columns. Actually, the leachate P concentrations of the Sai Keng columns treated with wastewater were similar to those receiving seawater (〈 0.1 mg l−). This finding implies Sai Keng soils were very effective in retaining wastewater P. Throughout the experiment, most heavy metals, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr were not detected in all leachate samples by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, indicating that both types of mangrove soils were capable of trapping wastewater-borne heavy metals. The study demonstrates that mangrove soils were good traps to immobilize wastewater-borne phosphorus and heavy metals but they were less efficient in retaining nitrogen from wastewater.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: mangrove ; soil/sediment ; plant ; wastewater ; sink ; nutrients
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The ecological impact of sewage discharges to a mangrove wetland in Futian National Nature Reserve, the People's Republic of China was assessed by comparing the plant community, plant growth and nutrient status of soils and vegetation of a site treated with settled municipal wastewater (Site A) with those of a control adjacent site (Site B) which did not receive sewage. During the one year study, the total and available N and P, and organic carbon concentrations of mangrove soils in Site A did not significantly differ from those of Site B. In both sites, the soil organic C, total N, NH4 }-N and total P content exhibited a descending trend from landward to seaward regions, with the lowest measurements obtained from the most foreshore location. Seasonal variation in N content of soil samples was more obvious than any difference between wastewater treated and the control sites. The soil N content was lower in spring and summer. This was attributed to the higher temperature in these seasons which facilitated degradation of organic matter and absorption of nitrogen by the plants for growth. No significant difference in plant community structure, plant growth (in terms of tree height and diameter) and biomass was found between Sites A and B. Leaf samples of the two dominant plant species, Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum collected from Site A had comparable content of organic carbon, N, P and K to those Site B. These preliminary results indicated that the discharge of a total volume of 2600 m3 municipal wastewater to an area of 1800 m2 mangrove plants over the period of a year did not produce any apparent impact on growth of the plants. The soils and plant leaves of Site A were not contaminated, in terms of nutrient content, by the discharged sewage.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: mangrove ; plant community ; Hong Kong ; mapping ; characteristics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ecological surveys were carried out to investigate the distribution and characterization of remaining mangrove stands in Hong Kong. The field studies indicate that 43 mangrove stands, excluding Mai Po Nature Reserve, still remained along the coastline of Hong Kong despite tremendous reclamation and development which occurred in the past 40 years. Most mangrove stands were found in Deep Bay (western part)and Sai Kung District (eastern coasts). The total areas occupied by these mangrove stands were 178 ha,varying from a very small stand (with 1–2 mangrove shrubs) to fairly extensive mangroves in Deep Bay (〉 10 ha). It appeared that mangrove stands located in Deep Bay area were larger than those in the eastern coasts. Twenty plant species were identified from these stands, with 13 being exclusive or associate mangrove species. The major constituent species were Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia marina. Rare species such as Heritiera littoralis were only found in a few mangrove stands. Out of the 43remaining mangrove stands, 23 were more worthwhile for conservation and their plant community structures were further investigated by transect and quadrat analyses. The importance values (sum of relative abundance,frequency and dominance) show that K. candel was the most dominant species. Species richness and Simpson's indices together with tree height, tree density and canopy area fluctuated significantly between mangrove stands. These values were used to prioritize the conservation potential of the remaining mangrove stands in Hong Kong.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Hydrobiologia 352 (1997), S. 49-59 
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: mangrove ; treatment ; sewage ; plant ; sediment ; wetland
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Field work has been conducted in a 300-hectare natural mangrove intertidal wetlands in Shenzhen, a newly developed city in southern China, to study the feasibility of using mangrove wetlands as a sewage treatment facility. The present paper reports the results obtained in the recent year, between December1994 and December 1995. Two parallel elongated sites(Sites A & B, each 180 m × 10 m) extending from land to sea were chosen for study. Since September 1991,Site A has received settled municipal sewage three times a week during the low ebb tide period when sediments at landward regions were dry. The hydraulic loading was 20 m3 per discharge and wastewater was soaked into the sediments within 50 m of the discharge points before the next incoming tide. Site B served as a control. Over the past months in 1994and 1995, surface sediments and plant leaves were collected at identified locations in two sites at every six month intervals. The impact of sewage on mangrove plant growth was assessed by monitoring plant height, diameter and number of trees using the fixed plot technique. The plant density, stem diameter and tree height of two dominant mangrove species, Kandelia candel and Aegiceras corniculatum, found in Site A were comparable with those of Site B. No significant difference was detected between two sites in terms of plant growth and death rates. These results indicate that sewage discharge over a period of about two years did not exhibit any apparent effect on plant growth. The nutrient and organic matter concentrations of surface sediments in Site A were also not significantly different from those found in Site B, except at the very landward regions (2 to 40 m away from landwards). The nutrient concentrations of sediments collected in sampling locations near the discharge points of Site A were however significantly higher than that of the control. In both sites, the organic C, total N and P, NH4 +-N and NO3 −-N concentrations in the surface sediments exhibited a descending trend from landwards to seaward regions, with notably higher values found in the landward locations. Seasonal variation in NH4 +-N content was obvious, and more ammonium nitrogen was recorded in July than in December. Leaf samples of the two dominant plant species collected from Site A had similar total N and organic C concentrations as those from Site B. These findings suggest that mangrove intertidal wetlands are of great potential for natural wastewater treatment,and are unlikely to produce any harmful effect on the higher plant communities.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: heavy metal ; accumulation ; mangrove ; Kandelia ; sewage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Constructed tide tanks were used to examine the accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in various components of a simulated mangrove ecosystem. Young Kandelia candel plants grown in mangrove soils were irrigated with wastewater of various strengths twice a week for a period of one year. The amounts of heavy metals released via tidal water and leaf litter were monitored at regular time intervals. The quantities of heavy metals retained in mangrove soil and various plant parts were also determined. Results show that most heavy metals from wastewater were retained in soils with little being uptake by plants or released into tidal seawater. However, the amounts of metals retained in plants on a per unit dry weight base were higher than those in soils as the biomass production from the young mangrove plants was much smaller when compared to the vast quantity of soils used in this study. A significantly higher heavy metal content was found in roots than in the aerial parts of the mangrove plant,indicating that the roots act as a barrier for metal translocation and protect the sensitive parts of the plant from metal contamination. In both soil and plant, concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb and Ni increased with the strengths of wastewater, although the bioaccumulation factors for these metals decreased when wastewater strengths increased. These results suggest that the mangrove soil component has a large capacity to retain heavy metals, and the role of mangrove plants in retaining metals will depend on plant age and their biomass production.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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