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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (2)
  • antibody  (2)
  • oncogenes  (1)
  • Exotoxin
  • Chemotherapy
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (3)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: antibody ; antitumor ; single chain Fv ; variable domains ; X-ray crystallography ; protein structure ; protein stability ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: A recombinant Fv construct of the B1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes the LewisY-related carbohydrate epitope on human carcinoma cells has been prepared. The Fv is composed of the polypeptide chains of the VH and VL domains expressed independently and isolated as inclusion bodies. The Fv is prepared by combining and refolding equimolar amounts of guanidine chloride solubilized inclusion bodies. The Fv is stabilized by an engineered interchain disulfide bridge between residues VL100 and VH44. This construct has a similar binding affinity as that of the single-chain construct (Benhar and Pastan, Clin. Cancer Res. 1:1023-1029, 1995). The B1 disulfide-stabilized Fv (B1dsFv) crystallizes in space group P6122 with the unit cell parameters a = b = 80.1 Å, and c = 138.1 Å. The crystal structure of the B1dsFv has been determined at 2.1-Å resolution using the molecular replacement technique. The final structure has a crystallographic R-value of 0.187 with a root mean square deviation in bond distance of 0.014 Å and in bond angle of 2.74°. Comparisons of the B1dsFv structure with known structures of Fv regions of other immunoglobulin fragments shows closely related secondary and tertiary structures. The antigen combining site of B1dsFv is a deep depression 10-Å wide and 17-Å long with the walls of the depression composed of residues, many of which are tyrosines, from complementarity determining regions L1, L3, H1, H2, and H3. Model building studies indicate that the LewisY tetrasaccharide, Fuc-Gal-Nag-Fuc, can be accommodated in the antigen combining site in a manner consistent with the epitope predicted in earlier biochemical studies (Pastan, Lovelace, Gallo, Rutherford, Magnani, and Willingham, Cancer Res. 51:3781-3787, 1991). Thus, the engineered disulfide bridge appears to cause little, if any, distortion in the Fv structure, making it an effective substitute for the B1 Fab. Proteins 31:128-138, 1998. Published 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cell transformation ; neoplastic ; receptor ; epidermal growth factor ; transforming growth factor ; oncogenes ; genetic vectors ; retrovirus ; bioassay ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Two retroviral DNAs that encode the normal human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor hEGFR have been generated by inserting a hEGFR cDNA into two different retroviral vectors. One DNA (pCO11-EGFR-neo) also contained a linked selectable marker gene (neoR). The other (pCO12-EGFR) only expresses hEGFR. When introduced into NIH3T3 cells, the two DNAs and the viruses derived from them induced a fully transformed phenotype, including focal transformation and growth in agar or low serum, but transformation depended entirely upon EGF being present in the growth medium. Compared with pCO11-EGFR-neo, pCO12-EGFR induced EGF-dependent transformation 2-5 times more efficiently and expressed higher numbers of receptors (4 × 105 vs. 1 × 105 EGF receptors per cell). The results indicate that transforming potential is directly related to the number of EGF receptors. In defined, serum-free medium that contained only very low concentrations of insulin (0.6 μg/ml) and transferrin (0.6 μg/ml), hEGFR-virus infected cells were able to grow with EGF as the only growth factor. Moreover, daily incubation of the cells with EGF for only 30 min was sufficient to induce growth. NR6 cells, which lack endogenous EGF receptors, were transformed as efficiently as NIH3T3 cells by the hEGFR virus. The dose-dependent growth response to EGF of infected NR6 cells grown in serum-free medium can be used as a highly sensitive bioassay for the quantitative assessment of EGF and transforming growth factor type α (TGFα). This bioassay is at least as sensitive as previously reported radioimmunoassays and can measure a much wider concentration range (10 pg-100 ng/ml). Uninfected NR6 cells or NR6 cells infected by helper virus alone can be used as controls for the EGF specificity of growth stimulation.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0887-3585
    Keywords: immunoglobulin ; antibody ; mAb B3 ; protein engineering ; disulfide bond ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The Fv fragments are the smallest units of antibodies that retain the specific antigen binding characteristics of the whole molecule and are being used for the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. These are noncovalently associated heterodimers of the heavy (V H) and the light (VL) chain variable domains, which, without modification, tend to dissociate, unfold, and/or nonspecific ally aggregate. The fragment is usually stabilized by producing it as a single chain recombinant molecule in which the two chains are linked by means of a short polypeptide linker. An alternative strategy is to connect the two chains by means of an interchain disulfide bond. We used molecular graphics and other modeling tools to identify two possible interchain disulfide bond sites in the framework region of the Fv fragment of the monoclonal mouse antibody (mAb) B3. The mAb B3 binds to many human cancer cells and is being used in the development of a new anticancer agent. The two sites identified are VH44-VL105 and VH111-VL48. (VH44-VL100 and VH105-VL43 in the numbering scheme of Kabat et al., “Sequence of Proteins of Immunological Interest,” U.S. DHHS, NIH publication No. 91-3242, 1991.) This design was recently tested using the chimeric protein composed of a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin and the Fv fragment of mAb B3 with the engineered disulfide bond at VH44-VL105 (Brinkmann et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:7538, 1993). The chimeric toxin was found to be just as active as the corresponding single chain counterpart and considerably more stable. Because these disulfide bond sites are in the framework region, they can be located from sequence alignment alone. We expect that the disulfide bond at these sites will stabilize the Fv fragment of most antibodies and the antigen-specific portion of the T-cell receptors, which are homologous. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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