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  • Locomotion  (2)
  • pharmacodynamics  (2)
  • AC-ECD  (1)
  • Springer  (5)
  • Munksgaard International Publishers
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  • Springer  (5)
  • Munksgaard International Publishers
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Microchimica acta 96 (1988), S. 11-26 
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: electron capture detector (ECD) ; electron oscillation ; AC-ECD ; argon-methane ; non-homogeneous ECD kinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The oscillation of electrons—as driven by AC polarization—can be used to extract a high-sensitivity signal from a conventional electron capture detector. For example, hexachloroethane was detected at a hypercoulometric ratio of 2.0 F/mol, down to ca. 60 fg/s (S/N=3) and with a linear range in excess of two orders of magnitude. The change in carrier gas from nitrogen to argon-methane produced the expected order-of-magnitude increase in optimum oscillation frequency. Anab initio simulation of potentials and ion populations in a heterogeneous electron capture system under a high-frequency AC regime provided further insight into the detector's mechanism: Hypercoulometric response is mainly caused by increased cation-electron recombination in the plasma region, owing to a decreased field gradient and an increased cation concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Dopamine ; Microdialysis ; Nucleus accumbens ; Feeding ; Locomotion ; Area under the curve
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  The intent of the present study was to determine the effects of systemic injections of the sympathomimetic agent ephedrine (EPH) on extracellular dopamine (DA) levels within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAC) and to compare these effects with those of EPH on locomotion and on feeding. In experiment 1, adult male rats were prepared with an indwelling 3 mm microdialysis probe positioned within the NAC. The rats were injected (IP) with vehicle, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg (–)-EPH with dialysates collected every 20 min for 100 min after drug injection. Systemic injections of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (–)-EPH significantly enhanced extracellular levels of NAC DA over baseline by 79%, 130%, and 400%. Systemic injection of 20 mg/kg EPH significantly reduced NAC levels of DOPAC and HVA by 37% and 31%. The effects of EPH on brain dopamine activity were stereospecific given that an additional group of rats injected with 20 mg/kg (+)-EPH exhibited smaller changes in NAC DA (〈25%), DOPAC (〈10%), and HVA levels (〈20%) than did rats injected with 20 mg/kg (–)-EPH. In experiment 2, adult male rats were injected (IP) with 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg (–)-EPH prior to placement in automated activity chambers. Total distance traveled was significantly increased by 10 and 20 mg/kg (–)-EPH, but not by 5 mg/kg (–)-EPH. In experiment 3, adult male rats were injected (IP) with 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg (–)-EPH or with 0, 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg (+)-EPH prior to a 30-min feeding test. Although each EPH enantiomer decreased feeding, (–)-EPH was more potent in feeding suppression than was (+)-EPH. The present results suggest that EPH may alter locomotion and feeding via an indirect action on brain dopamine activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2072
    Keywords: Key words Cocaine ; Dopamine ; Ephedrine ; Locomotion ; Rat ; Sensitization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Systemic injection of the sympathomimetic agent ephedrine (EPH) stimulates locomotion in drug-naive rats, an effect that may be dependent on the enantiomer of EPH employed [(–)-EPH or (+)-EPH]. The present experiments examined the effects of repeated EPH exposure on locomotion in rats to assess whether these treatments result in drug tolerance or sensitization. In experiment 1, adult male rats were injected once daily with 0, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg (–)-EPH (IP) on each of 11 days. Locomotor activity was assessed for 60 min after drug injection. Acute exposure to (–)-EPH treatment increased locomotion for animals receiving 20 or 40 mg/kg, and this effect was augmented after 11 days of drug administration. A vehicle-only injection was given to all animals on day 12 to determine the influence of environmental cues on sensitization. On day 13, all rats were injected with 10 mg/kg cocaine HCl to assess whether repeated (–)-EPH exposure produced a cross-sensitization to cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP). Only rats treated repeatedly with 40 mg/kg (–)-EPH exhibited increases in cocaine-stimulated locomotion relative to saline-treated rats. In experiment 2, repeated exposure to (+)-EPH, 40 mg/kg, but not 20 mg/kg, increased activity and demonstrated the development of sensitization. Cross-sensitization to cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP) was not evident following treatment with either concentration of (+)-EPH. There was no evidence that contextual events alone played a role in the effects observed here.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Captopril ; sublingual ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In this study we compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of captopril after sublingual and peroral administration. Single 25 mg doses of captopril were administered sublingually and perorally on two different occasions in a randomised cross-over fashion to eight healthy volunteers aged 22–35 years. The kinetics of unchanged captopril, plasma renin activity (PRA), BP and heart rate were studied over three hours after both peroral and sublingual administration of captopril. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after sublingual administration were: Cmax, 234 ng·ml−1; tmax, 45 min; AUC (0–3 h), 15.1 μg·ml−1. min. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters for unchanged captopril after peroral administration were: Cmax, 228 ng·ml−1; tmax, 75 min; AUC (0–3 h), 17.0 μg·ml−1. min. tmax was significantly shorter when captopril was administered sublingually; all other pharmacokinetic parameters were equivalent. The plasma captopril concentrations achieved post drug administration led to increases in PRA and reductions in BP. tmax for PRA was 86 min for sublingual captopril and 113 min for perorally administered drug. Peak PRA values were, however, not significantly different. BP, as expected, was not reduced dramatically in these healthy volunteer subjects, however, in systolic BP vs time profiles, BP was significantly lower after volunteers received sublingual captopril. Heart rate increased slightly after captopril administration; there were no differences between the two routes of administration. Administration of captopril sublingually, therefore led to a more rapid attainment of plasma captopril concentrations and had a more rapid onset of pharmacological effect when compared with peroral administration.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: alfuzosin ; prazosin ; alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist ; noradrenaline ; pharmacokinetics ; pharmacodynamics ; healthy volunteers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In an open dose ranging study with random inclusion of placebo, alfuzosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) 1, 2.5 and 5 mg was administered to 6 healthy volunteers, 3 of the volunteers received 10 mg alfuzosin. Supine systolic blood (SBP) pressure was not reduced by alfuzosin although significant increases occurred in supine heart rate (HR) after 2.5 and 5 mg. In the standing position, SBP was reduced at 2 and 4 h with 5 mg alfuzosin; significant increases in HR occurred following 1, 2.5 and 5 mg at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after administration. Exercise SBP was not reduced; diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at 4 and 6 h with 5 mg alfuzosin. More marked effects were seen in the 3 subjects who received 10 mg alfuzosin. After 1 and 5 mg, tmax ranged from 1–2 h; Cmax (4.1 to 20.8 ng · ml−1; AUC (0–24) 20 to 132 ng · ml−1 · h (1 and 5 mg respectively) increased progressively with dose indicating dose dependent kinetics; no significant changes occurred in the visual analogue scale for sedation. A comparison of alfuzosin 5 mg, prazosin 1 mg and placebo each administered for 4 days, indicated that alfuzosin did not significantly reduce standing SBP on either Day 1 or Day 4; prazosin reduced SBP at 2 and 4 h on Day 1 and 6 h on Day 4 compared to placebo. Standing HR was increased by alfuzosin at 2 h on Day 1 and Day 4; increases occurred with prazosin at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h on Day 1 and 6 h on Day 4. Supine plasma noradrenaline increased with alfuzosin and prazosin at 2 and 4 h on Days 1 and 4; the increases were not significantly different. The plasma elimination half-life (t1/2) for alfuzosin was 3.4 h and 3.1 h after acute and chronic administration; (t1/2) for prazosin was 2.6 and 2.9 h. In conclusion alfuzosin causes small reductions in systolic blood pressure, accompanied by a dose dependent increase in heart rate in the supine and standing position and following exercise.
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