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  • TUMORS  (4)
  • pharmacokinetics  (4)
  • BREAST-CANCER RISK  (2)
  • 1
    Keywords: TUMORS ; polymorphism ; VARIANTS ; BREAST-CANCER ; BRCA1 ; WOMEN ; HETEROZYGOSITY ; MUTATIONS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; LOCUS ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; association studies ; Meiosis ; risk of ovarian cancer
    Abstract: Common germline genetic variation in the population is associated with susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and expression microarray analysis identified nine genes associated with functional suppression of tumorogenicity in ovarian cancer cell lines; AIFM2, AKTIP, AXIN2, CASP5, FILIP1L, RBBP8, RGC32, RUVBL1 and STAG3. Sixty-three tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in these genes were genotyped in 1,799 invasive ovarian cancer cases and 3,045 controls to look for associations with disease risk. Two SNPs in RUVBL1, rs13063604 and rs7650365, were associated with increased risk of serous ovarian cancer [HetOR = 1.42 (1.15-1.74) and the HomOR = 1.63 (1.10-1.42), p-trend = 0.0002] and [HetOR = 0.97 (0.80-1.17), HomOR = 0.74 (0.58-0.93), p-trend = 0.009], respectively. We genotyped rs13063604 and rs7650365 in an additional 4,590 cases and 6,031 controls from ten sites from the United States, Europe and Australia; however, neither SNP was significant in Stage 2. We also evaluated the potential role of tSNPs in these nine genes in ovarian cancer development by testing for allele-specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in 286 primary ovarian tumours. We found frequent LOH for tSNPs in AXIN2, AKTIP and RGC32 (64, 46 and 34%, respectively) and one SNP, rs1637001, in STAG3 showed significant allele-specific LOH with loss of the common allele in 94% of informative tumours (p = 0.015). Array comparative genomic hybridisation indicated that this nonrandom allelic imbalance was due to amplification of the rare allele. In conclusion, we show evidence for the involvement of a common allele of STAG3 in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20635389
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  • 2
    Keywords: GENES ; MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION ; TUMORS ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; BREAST-CANCER RISK ; HEPATITIS-C ; CELL-TYPE ; ANALYSES REVEAL ; IDENTIFIES SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI ; FALLOPIAN-TUBE
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOCs). Our analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls with imputation identified 3 new risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 x 10(-8)), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 x 10(-12)) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 x 10(-13)). We identified significant expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 x 10(-4), false discovery rate (FDR) = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk-associated SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26075790
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; DEATH ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; MORTALITY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; microarray ; TUMORS ; validation ; DNA ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; ASSAY ; microarrays ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; meta-analysis ; SNP ; risk factors ; mass spectrometry ; SPECTROMETRY ; RISK FACTOR ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; overall survival ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; METAANALYSIS ; SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; GENOTYPE ; cancer survival ; INTERNATIONAL CASE-CONTROL ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; REPAIR GENES ; TUMOR CHARACTERISTICS ; COMMON POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide ; journals ; COX REGRESSION ; ALL-CAUSE ; BRCA1 MUTATIONS
    Abstract: Traditional prognostic factors for survival and treatment response of patients with breast cancer do not fully account for observed survival variation. We used available genotype data from a previously conducted two-stage, breast cancer susceptibility genome-wide association study (ie, Studies of Epidemiology and Risk factors in Cancer Heredity [SEARCH]) to investigate associations between variation in germline DNA and overall survival. We evaluated possible associations between overall survival after a breast cancer diagnosis and 10 621 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from up to 3761 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 647 deaths and 26 978 person-years at risk) that were genotyped previously in the SEARCH study with high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (ie, hypothesis-generating set). Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed for each SNP by use of Cox regression analysis, generating a per rare allele hazard ratio (HR). To validate putative associations, we used patient genotype information that had been obtained with 5' nuclease assay or mass spectrometry and overall survival information for up to 14 096 patients with invasive breast cancer (including 2303 deaths and 70 019 person-years at risk) from 15 international case-control studies (ie, validation set). Fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to generate an overall effect estimate in the validation dataset and in combined SEARCH and validation datasets. All statistical tests were two-sided. In the hypothesis-generating dataset, SNP rs4778137 (C 〉 G) of the OCA2 gene at 15q13.1 was statistically significantly associated with overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors, with the rare G allele being associated with increased overall survival (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.41 to 0.75, P = 9.2 x 10(-5)). This association was also observed in the validation dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.99, P = .03) and in the combined dataset (HR of death per rare allele carried = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.92, P = 5 x 10(-4)). The rare G allele of the OCA2 polymorphism, rs4778137, may be associated with improved overall survival among patients with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20308648
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; KINASE ; DIAGNOSIS ; SUPPORT ; DISEASE ; RISK ; DISTINCT ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; prevention ; DIFFERENCE ; genetics ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTORS ; PROGNOSTIC FACTOR ; heredity ; KERATINOCYTE GROWTH-FACTOR ; HETEROGENEITY ; fibroblast ; SNPs ; overall survival ; GRADE ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTOR ; METAANALYSIS ; ESTROGEN ; USA ; CANCER-RISK ; comparison ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; LOW-GRADE ; FGFR2 ; NUCLEOTIDE ; genetic variants
    Abstract: A three-stage genome-wide association study recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs) in five loci ( fibroblast growth receptor 2 ( FGFR2), trinucleotide repeat containing 9 ( TNRC9), mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 K1 (MAP3K1), 8q24, and lymphocyte- specific protein 1 ( LSP1)) associated with breast cancer risk. We investigated whether the associations between these SNPs and breast cancer risk varied by clinically important tumor characteristics in up to 23,039 invasive breast cancer cases and 26,273 controls from 20 studies. We also evaluated their influence on overall survival in 13,527 cases from 13 studies. All participants were of European or Asian origin. rs2981582 in FGFR2 was more strongly related to ER- positive ( per- allele OR ( 95%CI) = 1.31 (1.27-1.36)) than ER- negative (1.08 (1.03- 1.14)) disease ( P for heterogeneity = 10-(13)). This SNP was also more strongly related to PR-positive, low grade and node positive tumors (P = 10(-5), 10(-8), 0.013, respectively). The association for rs13281615 in 8q24 was stronger for ER- positive, PR-positive, and low grade tumors (P = 0.001, 0.011 and 10(-4), respectively). The differences in the associations between SNPs in FGFR2 and 8q24 and risk by ER and grade remained significant after permutation adjustment for multiple comparisons and after adjustment for other tumor characteristics. Three SNPs ( rs2981582, rs3803662, and rs889312) showed weak but significant associations with ER- negative disease, the strongest association being for rs3803662 in TNRC9 ( 1.14 ( 1.09-1.21)). rs13281615 in 8q24 was associated with an improvement in survival after diagnosis ( per- allele HR = 0.90 (0.83-0.97). The association was attenuated and non-significant after adjusting for known prognostic factors. Our findings show that common genetic variants influence the pathological subtype of breast cancer and provide further support for the hypothesis that ER- positive and ER- negative disease are biologically distinct. Understanding the etiologic heterogeneity of breast cancer may ultimately result in improvements in prevention, early detection, and treatment
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18437204
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  • 5
    Keywords: CELLS ; DISEASE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; VARIANTS ; REVEALS ; BREAST-CANCER RISK ; METAANALYSIS ; WIDE ASSOCIATION ; CENTRAL PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY ; HUMAN PREFRONTAL CORTEX
    Abstract: Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-causemortality(1). Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation(2,3), but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P 〈 5 x 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25231870
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: dexamethasone ; bioavailability ; pharmacokinetics ; ‘first-pass’ effect ; pre-systemic elimination
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics and oral biovailability of dexamethasone were studied in 6 patients with neurological disease being treated with high dosages of the drug. A specific high performance liquid chromatographic assay was used to measure dexamethasone concentrations. Unlike the previously published mean figure of 0.78 for the oral bioavailability of the drug given in single doses to healthy volunteers, the mean bioavailability of dexamethasone in the patients studied was 0.53±SD 0.40. It appeared more likely that this incomplete bioavailability was due to presystemic elimination than to poor absorption. The intravenous clearance of the drug was relatively high (0.4902±SD 2291 l kg−1, approximately 65% of expected hepatic plasma flow), the oral clearance higher (2.5804±SD 3.2181 l kg−1 h−1) while the absorption rate constant (4.8729±8.4998 h−1), suggested rapid absorption after oral administration. Prior phenytoin and possibly prior dexamethasone therapy is likely to have contributed to the higher clearance values of the drug in these patients than the values reported in healthy volunteers after single dose studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: aspirin ; migraine ; salicylic acid ; metoclopramide ; drug absorption ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of aspirin (ASA) in acute migraine attacks, and the influence of metoclopramide on ASA disposition, were studied in 32 attacks in 30 patients. An intergroup comparison was made between normal volunteers, and the migraineurs, who were assigned at random to one of three treatment groups: a) oral ASA only (900 mg); b) 10 mg oral metoclopramide + oral ASA 900 mg; c) 10 mg i. m. metoclopramide + oral ASA 900 mg. Plasma ASA and SA levels were measured serially over 2 h, and the resultant data evaluated pharmacokinetically. Metoclopramide plasma levels were also determined over 2 h, and the results compared with a second group of normal volunteers. The rates of oral ASA absorption and elimination were unaffected by migraine. Mean absorption rate constants of 14.15±9.48 h−1 (normals), 7.91±3.42 h−1 (ASA only), 6.74±3.26 h−1 (ASA + oral metoclopramide) and 8.12±2.82 h−1 (ASA + i. m. metoclopramide) were calculated. Mean elimination rate constants ranged from 2.56 h−1 to 3.37 h−1, and did not differ significantly between controls and migrainous patients. Values for absorption lag time, however, were higher in migraine patients treated with ASA alone than in any other group. The amount of ASA absorbed unhydrolysed was also lower in this group. SA levels appeared unaffected either by the migraine attack, or by metoclopramide administration, over the period of study. Metoclopramide plasma levels were significantly lower during migraine attacks, and the amount of drug absorbed up to 2 h from dosing was also reduced, as compared with non-migrainous subjects. It was concluded that acute migraine caused a delay in orally administered ASA reaching its absorption sites, probably as a result of gastric stasis, and may have decreased the amount of ASA absorbed. The prior administration of metoclopramide, either orally or intramuscularly, reduced the absorption lag time, and thus promoted the early absorption of ASA, probably by restoring alimentary tract motility.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Bioavailability ; carbamazepine ; elimination ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The time-courses of plasma carbamazepine concentrations were followed in six apparently healthy adult subjects who, at different times, took single oral drug doses of 200, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 mg. There were some suggestions of impaired bioavailability of the drug when given in tablet form. The following values were obtained for various pharmacokinetic parameters:k abs =0.176±0.209 h−1;k=0.0203±0.0055 h−1; T1/2=37.5±13.1 h; VD=0.825±0.1041 · kg−1; Clearance=0.0163±0.0061 l · kg−1. The elimination rate constant showed a statistically significant increase with increasing drug dose. This may help explain the clinical observation that the rate of rise of steady state plasma carbamazepine concentrations tends to decrease with dose increase in patients taking carbamazepine alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: midazolam ; hypnotic drug ; benzodiazepine ; pharmacokinetics ; aged patients
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of midazolam, an imidazo-benzodiazepine derivative, have been studied in 13 subjects over the age of 60 years who received the drug intravenously (0.07 mg kg−1) as an induction agent for endoscopy. Two to three days later, 6 of these subjects received 5 mg of midazolam intramuscularly, and another 6 of the subjects received 10 mg of the drug orally. The plasma concentration-time curves were again studied pharmacokinetically. After intravenous dosing, the mean (± SD) elimination half-life (2.14±1.24 h) showed a statistically significant trend to increase with age in the subjects older than 60 years. While the mean (± SD) clearance value (0.30±0.19 l kg−1h−1) tended to fall with age in the elderly subjects, this trend was not statistically significant. Apparent volume of distribution did not appear to be related to advancing age beyond 60 years, and this parameter (mean ± SD) did not differ to a statistically significant extent between the aged subjects (0.77±0.47 l kg−1) and the young subjects studied previously (1.09±0.58 l kg−1). Atropine premedication did not appear to alter the dispositional parameters of the intravenously administered drug. Intramuscularly administered midazolam was absorbed rapidly. Bioavailability appeared incomplete (F=0.59±0.15, mean ± SD), possibly due to saturable elimination of the drug at the higher plasma levels which were obtained after intravenous midazolam. Oral bioavailability, relative to intravenous, was 0.34±0.17, (mean ± SD), with an appreciable but variable lag time (0.74±0.40 h, mean ± SD). Orally, in the dose used, the drug was an inefficient hypnotic with four of the six subjects failing to attain the plasma drug level of 44–50 µg l−1, which appeared to be the approximate threshold for sleep. It is impossible to know whether this failure represents an age related effect on drug absorption, or is a consequence of the upper alimentary tract abnormalities for which the endoscopies were done.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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