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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: p-Chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid ; clofibrate ; steady-state plasma concentrations ; bioavailability ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Plasma concentrations and bioavailability of clofibrinic acid have been estimated under conditions approaching the steady-state during a ten-day period of administration as clofibrate or as a calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination (1:1 w/w) at a dosage interval of 12 h. Formulation — related differences in bioavailability were not significant, and the 95% confidence limits of these differences were within −2% to +8% of the mean for the reference formulation of clofibrate. The mean steadystate plasma concentrations of clofibrinic acid measured on the tenth day of dosing were 116 µg/ml±22 S.D. and 119 µg/ml±23 S.D. after administration of 885 mg as clofibrate and the calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination respectively. The peaks of mean plasma concentrations were 70 µg/ml±15 S.D., 119 µg/ml±32 S.D. and 131 µg/ml±26 S.D. on the first, fifth and tenth day of dosing with clofibrate, and 62 µg/ml±13 S.D., 127 µg/ml±S.D. and 143 µg/ml±25 S.D. on the corresponding days of dosing with the calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination. After the last dose on the tenth day of dosing, the mean apparent half-lives of elimination of clofibrinic acid from plasma were 24.2 h±4.4 S.D. and 25.5 h±3.2 S.D. after administration of clofibrate and the calcium clofibrinate-carbonate combination respectively.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Ximoprofen ; pharmacokinetics ; normal subjects ; hepatic disease ; renal disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pharmacokinetics of ximoprofen, a potent new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been investigated in normal healthy subjects and in patients with hepatic or renal disease. After intravenous infusion of 22.8 mg to healthy subjects, plasma ximoprofen concentrations declined in a polyexponential manner with a terminal phase half-life of 1.9 h. The systemic clearance of ximoprofen was 115 ml·min−1 and the volumes of distribution were 18.0 l Vz and 13.8 l Vss. Ximoprofen was 80–90% bound to plasma proteins. The systemic availabilities (f) of orally and rectally administered doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen were 98% and 56% respectively and, in the case of the rectal dose, absorption appeared to be prolonged leading to “flip-flop” kinetics. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with hepatic disease, half-life (2.2 h), peak plasma concentrations (1.55 μg·ml−1 cf 1.04 μg·ml−1 in healthy subjects) and areas under the curve (6.12 μg·h·ml−1 cf 3.54 μg·h·ml−1 in healthy subjects) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. After single oral doses of 30 mg of ximoprofen to patients with renal disease, pharmacokinetic parameters of half-life (4.0 h), mean residence time (6.0 h) and area under the curve (9.2 μg·h·ml−1) were significantly different from those in healthy subjects. There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between patients having differing degrees of renal disease. These data nevertheless suggest that accumulation of ximoprofen in hepatic or renal disease would be of slight or negligible clinical relevance and that no alteration of the dose regimen (up to 15 mg twice daily) may be required when ximoprofen is administered in these disease states.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: piroxicam ; pharmacokinetics ; geriatrics ; renal insufficiency ; drug safety ; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ; osteoarthritis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Age-dependent changes in pharmacokinetics are considered a possible factor contributing to a higher risk of side-effects from drug treatment in the elderly. However, very little is known about the kinetics and metabolism of most NSAI agents in geriatric subjects. In a prospective age-comparison study, the single dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of piroxicam 20 mg once daily were determined in 44 subjects ranging in age from 30 to 80 years. Plasma concentrations, elimination half-life, AUC, and volume of distribution were not influenced by age or sex and were in agreement with previously reported results in young adults. Pharmacokinetic parameters in 18 patients with evidence of mild or moderate renal impairment at study entry were not different from those in patients without impairment. Based on this and other studies, elderly patients receiving the recommended dose of piroxicam are not exposed to undue risk related to pharmacokinetic considerations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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