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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; CLASSIFICATION ; DIAGNOSIS ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; case-control studies ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; EUROPE ; SKIN-CANCER ; SUNLIGHT ; CELL CARCINOMA ; pooled analysis ; B-CELL ; VITAMIN-D ; non Hodgkin lymphoma ; personal sun exposure ; ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION EXPOSURE
    Abstract: In 2004-2007 4 independent case-control studies reported evidence that sun exposure might protect against NHL; a fifth, in women only, found increased risks of NHL associated with a range of sun exposure measurements. These 5 studies are the first to examine the association between personal sun exposure and NHL. We report here on the relationship between sun exposure and NHL in a pooled analysis of 10 studies participating in the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph), including the 5 published studies. Ten case-control studies covering 8,243 cases and 9,697 controls in the USA, Europe and Australia contributed original data for participants of European origin to the pooled analysis. Four kinds of measures of self-reported personal sun exposure were assessed at interview. A two-stage estimation method was used in which study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders including smoking and alcohol use, were obtained from unconditional logistic regression models and combined in random-effects models to obtain the pooled estimates. Risk of NHL fell significantly with the composite measure of increasing recreational sun exposure, pooled OR = 0.76 (95% CI 0.63-0.91) for the highest exposure category (p for trend 0.01). A downtrend in risk with increasing total sun exposure was not statistically significant. The protective effect of recreational sun exposure was statistically significant at 18-40 years of age and in the 10 years before diagnosis, and for B cell, but not T cell, lymphomas. Increased recreational sun exposure may protect against NHL. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17708556
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  • 2
    Keywords: MORTALITY ; UNITED-STATES ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA ; pooled analysis ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; AGRICULTURAL HEALTH ; PHENOXY HERBICIDES ; MALE FARMERS
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: We investigated the role of occupational exposure to specific groups of agrochemicals in the aetiology of lymphoma overall, B cell lymphoma and its most prevalent subtypes. METHODS: In 1998-2003, 2348 incident lymphoma cases and 2462 controls were recruited to the EPILYMPH case-control study in six European countries. A detailed occupational history was collected in cases and controls. Job modules were applied for farm work including specific questions on type of crop, farm size, pests being treated, type and schedule of pesticide use. In each study centre, industrial hygienists and occupational experts assessed exposure to specific groups of pesticides and individual compounds with the aid of agronomists. We calculated the OR and its 95% CI associated with lymphoma and the most prevalent lymphoma subtypes with unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, education and centre. RESULTS: Risk of lymphoma overall, and B cell lymphoma was not elevated, and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) was elevated amongst those ever exposed to inorganic (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.5) and organic pesticides (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1). CLL risk was highest amongst those ever exposed to organophosphates (OR=2.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.0). Restricting the analysis to subjects most likely exposed, no association was observed between pesticide use and risk of B cell lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide limited support to the hypothesis of an increase in risk of specific lymphoma subtypes associated with exposure to pesticides.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23117219
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; human ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; LYMPHOMA ; case-control studies ; INDIVIDUALS ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; FACTOR-ALPHA ; CYTOKINE ; case-control study ; case control studies ; single-nucleotide ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; GENOTYPE DATA ; pooled analysis ; INTERLEUKIN-10 ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISMS ; BIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
    Abstract: Background Common genetic variants in immune and inflammatory response genes can affect the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to test this hypothesis using previously unpublished data from eight European, Canadian, and US case-control studies of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Methods We selected 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for analysis, on the basis of previous functional or association data, in nine genes that have important roles in lymphoid development, Th1/Th2 balance, and proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory pathways (IL1A, IL1RN, IL1B, IL2, IL6, IL10, TNF, LTA, and CARD15). Genotype data for one or more single-nucleotide polymorphisms were available for 3586 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and for 4018 controls, and were assessed in a pooled analysis by use of a random-effects logistic regression model. Findings The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) -308G -〉 A polymorphism was associated with increased risk of nonHodgkin lymphoma (p for trend=0 . 005), particularly for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the main histological subtype (odds ratio 1 . 29 [95% CI 1 . 10-1 . 51] for GA and 1.65 [1 . 16-2 . 34] for AA, p for trend 〈 0 . 0001), but not for follicular lymphoma. The interleukin 10 (IL10) -3575T -〉 A polymorphism was also associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p for trend=0 . 02), again particularly for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (p for trend=0 . 006). For individuals homozygous for the TNF -308A allele and carrying at least one IL 10 -3575A allele, risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma doubled (2 . 13 [1 . 37-3 . 32], p=0 . 00083). Interpretation Common polymorphisms in TNF and IL10, key cytokines for the inflammatory response and Th1/Th2 balance, could be susceptibility loci for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Moreover, our results underscore the importance of consortia for investigating the genetic basis of chronic diseases like cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16389181
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  • 4
    Keywords: Germany ; INFORMATION ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; EXPOSURE ; HISTORY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; radiation ; TIME ; MECHANISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; mechanisms ; SKIN ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; lifestyle ; skin carcinogenesis ; FRANCE ; UNITED-STATES ; REPLICATION ; case-control studies ; sensitivity ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; multiple myeloma ; ADULT ; case-control study ; CHILDHOOD ; RE ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; methods ; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ; pooled analysis ; HODGKIN LYMPHOMA ; B-CELL ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; ENGLAND ; SUN EXPOSURE ; VITAMIN-D ; ULTRAVIOLET-RADIATION ; CONTROL-STUDY EPILYMPH ; non Hodgkin lymphoma ; non-Hodgkin ; B RADIATION ; OCCUPATIONAL SUNLIGHT EXPOSURE ; UV radiation
    Abstract: Background Three recent studies have reported a decreased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for high ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. Methods We conducted a multicentre casecontrol study during 1998-2004 in France, Germany, Ireland, Italy and Spain, comprising 1518 cases of NHL, 268 cases of Hodgkin lymphoma, 242 cases of multiple myeloma and 2124 population or hospital controls. We collected information on sensitivity to sun and personal exposure to UV radiation in childhood and adulthood via interview, and assessed occupational exposure to UV radiation from the occupational history. Results The risk of Hodgkin and NHL was increased for increasing skin sensitivity to the sun [odds ratio (OR) for no suntan vs very brown 2.35, 95% CI 0.94-5.87 and 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-1.87, respectively]. The risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was reduced for increasing adult personal (OR for highest vs lowest quartile of exposure in free days 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.87) and for occupational exposure to UV radiation (OR for highest vs lowest exposure tertile 0.63, 95% CI 0.37-1.04). The risk of multiple myeloma was increased for personal exposure to UV radiation during adulthood (OR for highest vs lowest quartile of exposure in free days 1.49, 95% CI 0.88-2.50). A protective effect was observed for use of sun lamps for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR for 25 + times vs never 0.63, 95% CI 0.38-1.03). Conclusions The hypothesis of a protective effect of UV radiation on lymphoma is supported by our results. The underlying mechanisms might differ from those operating in skin carcinogenesis. The increased risk of multiple myeloma is worth replication
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18511490
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; MODELS ; DIAGNOSIS ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; HISTORY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; REDUCTION ; SKIN ; ASSOCIATION ; PROGRESSION ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; WOMEN ; case-control studies ; INDIVIDUALS ; asthma ; ATOPY ; case control study ; case-control study ; MEDICAL HISTORY ; SAN-FRANCISCO ; allergy ; hay fever ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; LEVEL ; pooled analysis ; BIRTH-ORDER ; USA ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; cancer research ; NON-HODGKIN-LYMPHOMA ; FRANCISCO BAY AREA ; HEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES ; ECZEMA ; CONFIDENCE-INTERVALS ; INTERLYMPH ; ALLERGIES ; CONFIDENCE
    Abstract: We performed a pooled analysis of data on atopic disease and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) from 13 case-control studies, including 13,535 NHL cases and 16,388 controls. Self-reported atopic diseases diagnosed 2 years or more before NHL diagnosis (cases) or interview (controls) were analyzed. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed in two-stage random-effects or joint fixed-effects models, and adjusted for age, sex, and study center. When modeled individually, lifetime history of asthma, flay fever, specific allergy (excluding hay fever, asthma, and eczema), and food allergy were associated with a significant reduction in NHL, risk, and there was no association for eczema. When each atopic condition was included in the same model, reduced NHL risk was only associated with a history of allergy (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.94) and reduced R-cell NHL risk was associated with history of hay fever (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.95) and allergy (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.93). Significant reductions in B-cell NHL risk were also observed individuals who were likely to be truly or highly atopic-those with hay fever, allergy, or asthma and at least one other atopic condition over their lifetime. The inverse associations were consistent for the diffuse large B-cell and follicular subtypes. Eczema was positively associated with lymphomas of the skin; misdiagnosis of lymphoma as eczema is likely, but progression of eczema to cutaneous lymphoma cannot be excluded. This Pooled study shows evidence of a modest but consistent reduction in the risk of B-cell NHL associated with atopy. [Cancer Res 2009;69(16):6482-9]
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19654312
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  • 6
    Keywords: Germany ; COHORT ; RISK ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; etiology ; MEN ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RECRUITMENT ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; EUROPE ; non-hodgkin's lymphoma ; MULTICENTER ; MULTIPLE-MYELOMA ; OLDER WOMEN ; case-control study ; RE ; case control studies ; SUBTYPES ; pooled analysis ; CANCER-MORTALITY ; MULTICENTER CASE-CONTROL ; non-Hodgkin's
    Abstract: To study the role of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we conducted a multicenter case-control study in Spain, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland and Czech Republic between 1998 and 2004, which included 1,742 cases of NHL and 2,465 controls matched on age, sex and recruitment area. Tobacco smoking was not associated with the risk of NHL overall or with risk of specific histological subtypes. Similarly, there was no association between alcohol drinking and the risk of NHL overall or across histological subtypes. However. a protective effect of alcohol drinking was observed among men (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.93) and in non-Mediterranean countries (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.86). There was no evidence of interaction between alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking in NHL etiology. The results of this large-scale European study did not support an association between tobacco and NHL and suggested a protective effect of alcohol on development of NHL for men and in non-Mediterranean countries. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss. Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16557575
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  • 7
    Keywords: BLOOD ; MODEL ; DISEASE ; RISK ; PATIENT ; ARTHRITIS ; RISK-FACTORS ; T cell ; T-CELL ; TYPE-1 ; ASSOCIATION ; DISORDER ; LYMPHOMA ; risk factors ; SWEDEN ; diabetes ; case-control studies ; CLUES ; MULTIPLE-SCLEROSIS ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; INFLAMMATORY-BOWEL-DISEASE ; SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS ; DISORDERS ; case-control study ; MEDICAL HISTORY ; POPULATION-BASED COHORT ; PATTERN ; T-CELL LYMPHOMA ; rheumatoid arthritis ; RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; analysis ; SUBTYPES ; CELIAC-DISEASE ; PARTICIPANTS ; multiple sclerosis ; pooled analysis ; USA ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; RISK-FACTOR ; B-CELL ; ANEMIA ; PERNICIOUS-ANEMIA ; systemic ; RATIO ; non Hodgkin lymphoma ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; non-Hodgkin ; CONSORTIUM ; CONFIDENCE-INTERVALS ; MARGINAL ZONE LYMPHOMAS ; INTERLYMPH ; AUTOIMMUNE ; HEMATOPOIETIC CANCER ; hemolytic anemia ; PRIMARY SJOGRENS-SYNDROME ; systemic lupus erythematosus
    Abstract: Some autoimmune disorders are increasingly recognized as risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) overall, but large-scale systematic assessments of risk of NHL subtypes are lacking. We performed a pooled analysis of self-reported autoimmune conditions and risk of NHL and subtypes, including 29 423 participants in 12 case-control studies. We computed pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a joint fixed-effects model. Sjogren syndrome was associated with a 6.5-fold increased risk of NHL, a 1000-fold increased risk of parotid gland marginal zone lymphoma (OR = 996; 95% CI, 216-4596), and with diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas. Systemic lupus erythematosus was associated with a 2.7-fold increased risk of NHL and with diffuse large B-cell and marginal zone lymphomas. Hemolytic anemia was associated with diffuse large B-cell NHL. T-cell NHL risk was increased for patients with celiac disease and psoriasis. Results for rheumatoid arthritis were heterogeneous between studies. Inflammatory bowel disorders, type 1 diabetes, sarcoidosis, pernicious anemia, and multiple sclerosis were not associated with risk of NHL or subtypes. Thus, specific autoimmune disorders are associated with NHL risk beyond the development of rare NHL subtypes in affected organs. The pattern of associations with NHL subtypes may harbor clues to lymphomagenesis
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18263783
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  • 8
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; SUPPORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; LONG-TERM ; RISK ; COMPONENTS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA ; WEIGHT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; analysis ; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ; SUBTYPES ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; pooled analysis ; OVERWEIGHT ; USA ; BMI ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; B-CELL ; ENGLAND ; RATIO ; non Hodgkin lymphoma ; EXCESS ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; NO EVIDENCE ; non-Hodgkin ; CONSORTIUM ; nutritional status ; INTERLYMPH ; body mass index weight ; FORMER COLLEGE-STUDENTS ; LYMPHOHEMATOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES ; SCANDINAVIAN MEN
    Abstract: Nutritional status is known to alter immune function, a suspected risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To investigate whether long-term over, or under, nutrition is associated with NHL, self-reported anthropometric data on weight and height from over 10,000 cases of NHL and 16,000 controls were pooled across 18 case-control studies identified through the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression and combined using a random-effects model. Severe obesity, defined as BMI of 40 kg m(-2) or more, was not associated with NHL overall (pooled OR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.41) or the majority of NHL subtypes. An excess was however observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (pooled OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.24-2.62), although not all study-specific ORs were raised. Among the overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg m(-2)) and obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg m(-2)), associations were elevated in some studies and decreased in others, while no association was observed among the underweight (BMI 〈 18.5 kg m(-2)). There was little suggestion of increasing ORs for NHL or its subtypes with every 5 kg m(-2) rise in BMI above 18.5 kg m(-2). BMI components height and weight were also examined, and the tallest men, but not women, were at marginally increased risk (pooled OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34). In summary, whilst we conclude that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity is a determinant of all types of NHL combined, the association between severe obesity and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma may warrant further investigation. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18167059
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  • 9
    Keywords: RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; LYMPHOMA ; PROMOTER ; meta-analysis ; FOLLICULAR LYMPHOMA ; SYSTEMIC-LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS ; VARIANT ; RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS ; ALLELES ; pooled analysis ; B-CELL ; SUBGROUPS ; INTERLEUKIN-10 ; SUN EXPOSURE ; GENETIC-VARIATION ; non-Hodgkin ; Genetic ; IMMUNE ; single nucleotide ; lymphotoxin-alpha ; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
    Abstract: In an International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium pooled analysis, polymorphisms in 2 immune-system-related genes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-10 (IL10), were associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. Here, 8,847 participants were added to previous data (patients diagnosed from 1989 to 2005 in 14 case-control studies; 7,999 cases, 8,452 controls) for testing of polymorphisms in the TNF -308G 〉 A (rs1800629), lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) 252A 〉 G (rs909253), IL10 -3575T 〉 A (rs1800890, rs1800896), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) 3020insC (rs2066847) genes. Odds ratios were estimated for non-Hispanic whites and several ethnic subgroups using 2-sided tests. Consistent with previous findings, odds ratios were increased for "new" participant TNF -308A carriers (NHL: per-allele odds ratio (ORallelic) = 1.10, P-trend = 0.001; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): ORallelic = 1.23, P-trend = 0.004). In the combined population, odds ratios were increased for TNF -308A carriers (NHL: ORallelic = 1.13, P-trend = 0.0001; DLBCL: ORallelic = 1.25, P-trend = 3.7 x 10(-6); marginal zone lymphoma: ORallelic = 1.35, P-trend = 0.004) and LTA 252G carriers (DLBCL: ORallelic = 1.12, P-trend = 0.006; mycosis fungoides: ORallelic = 1.44, P-trend = 0.015). The LTA 252A 〉 G/TNF -308G 〉 A haplotype containing the LTA/TNF variant alleles was strongly associated with DLBCL (P = 2.9 x 10(-8)). Results suggested associations between IL10 -3575T 〉 A and DLBCL (P-trend = 0.02) and IL10 -1082A 〉 G and mantle cell lymphoma (P-trend = 0.04). These findings strengthen previous results for DLBCL and the LTA 252A 〉 G/TNF -308A locus and provide robust evidence that these TNF/LTA gene variants, or others in linkage disequilibrium, are involved in NHL etiology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20047977
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  • 10
    Keywords: CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; intraepithelial neoplasia ; TOBACCO SMOKING ; glutathione-S-transferase ; ORAL-CONTRACEPTIVE USE ; pooled analysis ; COLLABORATIVE REANALYSIS ; PASSIVE SMOKING ; INDIVIDUAL DATA ; ONCOGENIC HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS
    Abstract: A total of 308,036 women were selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire and provided blood samples. During a mean follow-up time of 9 years, 261 ICC cases and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the baseline sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2). Cervical samples were not available for HPV-DNA analysis in this study. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate associations between smoking and risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC in the cohort and the case-control studies. In the cohort analyses smoking status, duration and intensity showed a two-fold increased risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC, while time since quitting was associated with a two-fold reduced risk. In the nested case-control study, consistent associations were observed after adjustment for HPV, CT and HHV-2 serostatus, in both HPV seronegative and seropositive women. Results from this large prospective study confirm the role of tobacco smoking as an important risk factor for both CIN3/CIS and ICC, even after taking into account HPV exposure as determined by HPV serology. The strong beneficial effect of quitting smoking is an important finding that will further support public health policies for smoking cessation. What's new? Tobacco smoking is a cited cause of cervical cancer, but whether it causes cervical malignancy independent of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is unclear. Here, strong associations were found between most measures of tobacco smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3/carcinoma in situ and invasive cervical cancer, after taking into account past exposure to HPV infection. Quitting smoking was associated with a 2-fold risk reduction. The findings confirm the role of tobacco smoking in cervical carci
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24338632
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