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  • 1
    Keywords: radiotherapy ; LUNG ; THERAPY ; MASK ; SYSTEM ; SITE ; EFFICIENCY ; radiation ; PATIENT ; treatment ; CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY ; RADIATION-THERAPY ; NUMBER ; HEAD ; NECK ; INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY ; MULTILEAF COLLIMATOR ; IMRT ; JAWS ; RE
    Abstract: The potential of the variable-aperture collimator (VAC) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been evaluated by comparing its performance with that of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). This comparison used a decomposition algorithm to find the series of collimator segments that would treat a given intensity-modulated beam (IMB). Collimator performance was measured using both the number of segments required to complete the IMB and the monitor-unit efficiency of the treatment. The VAC was modelled with aperture sizes from 4 x 4 cm to 20 x 20 cm, and these apertures were allowed to be located anywhere within the IMB. To enable a direct comparison, a similar scanning MLC was modelled at the same range of aperture sizes. Using both collimators, decompositions were run on 10 x 10 and 20 x 20 random IMBs with integer bixel values ranging from 1 to 10. Clinical IMBs from lung, head and neck, and pelvic patients were taken from a Pinnacle treatment-planning system and tested in the same manner. It was found that for all treatment sites, a small, scanning MLC performs as well or better than an equivalent sized VAC in both number of segments and monitor-unit efficiency, and would be an efficient choice for centres looking for a simple collimator for IMRT
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16552100
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  • 2
    Keywords: imaging ; VOLUME ; radiation ; TIME ; FIELD ; TARGET ; DESIGN ; REPRODUCIBILITY ; DELIVERY ; EXCHANGE ; DOSE CALCULATION ; radiology ; SINGLE ; dosimetry ; PROFILES ; USA ; BEAMS ; ERROR ; PROPORTION ; collimators ; COVERAGE ; CYBERKNIFE ; FILM
    Abstract: Robotic radiosurgery using more than one circular collimator can improve treatment plan quality and reduce total monitor units (MU). The rationale for an iris collimator that allows the field size to be varied during treatment delivery is to enable the benefits of multiple-field-size treatments to be realized with no increase in treatment time due to collimator exchange or multiple traversals of the robotic manipulator by allowing each beam to be delivered with any desired field size during a single traversal. This paper describes the Iris(TM) variable aperture collimator (Accuray Incorporated, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), which incorporates 12 tungsten-copper alloy segments in two banks of six. The banks are rotated by 30 degrees with respect to each other, which limits the radiation leakage between the collimator segments and produces a 12-sided polygonal treatment beam. The beam is approximately circular, with a root-mean-square (rms) deviation in the 50% dose radius of 〈0.8% (corresponding to 〈0.25 mm at the 60 mm field size) and an rms variation in the 20-80% penumbra width of about 0.1 mm at the 5 mm field size increasing to about 0.5 mm at 60 mm. The maximum measured collimator leakage dose rate was 0.07%. A commissioning method is described by which the average dose profile can be obtained from four profile measurements at each depth based on the periodicity of the isodose line variations with azimuthal angle. The penumbra of averaged profiles increased with field size and was typically 0.2-0.6 mm larger than that of an equivalent fixed circular collimator. The aperture reproducibility is 〈= 0.1 mm at the lower bank, diverging to 〈= 0.2 mm at a nominal treatment distance of 800 mm from the beam focus. Output factors(OFs) and tissue-phantom-ratio data are identical to those used for fixed collimators, except the OFs for the two smallest field sizes (5 and 7.5 mm) are considerably lower for the Iris Collimator. If average collimator profiles are used, the assumption of circular symmetry results in dose calculation errors that are 〈1 mm or 〈1% for single beams across the full range of field sizes; errors for multiple non-coplanar beam treatment plans are expected to be smaller. Treatment plans were generated for 19 cases using the Iris Collimator (12 field sizes) and also using one and three fixed collimators. The results of the treatment planning study demonstrate that the use of multiple field sizes achieves multiple plan quality improvements, including reduction of total MU, increase of target volume coverage and improvements in conformality and homogeneity compared with using a single field size for a large proportion of the cases studied. The Iris Collimator offers the potential to greatly increase the clinical application of multiple field sizes for robotic radiosurgery
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19687567
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