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  • radioimmunoassay  (5)
  • Lung  (3)
  • Springer  (8)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2307
    Keywords: Bombesin ; Human pro-bombesin ; Lung ; Small cell carcinoma
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Small cell carcinoma of the lung is a highly malignant tumour. Its known biological products which include bombesin, do not allow the prediction of tumour behaviour. Molecular biology has revealed the amino acid sequence of human pro-bombesin, which consists of a signal peptide, the bioactive bombesin molecule and a C-terminal peptide. We have raised a rabbit antiserum to the first (N-terminal) 21 amino acids of the predicted C-terminal peptide. A total of 505 (361 neuroendocrine) surgically resected pulmonary tumours were evaluated for the presence of immunoreactive bombesin and C-terminal peptide. Strong immunostaining was obtained with the antiserum to the C-terminal peptide of human probombesin in 70% of the small cell carcinomas (175/250), in 63% of atypical (aggressive) carcinoids (31/49) but only in 16% of benign carcinoids (10/62). In contrast, bombesin immunostaining was focal and only moderately strong and the relative proportion of positive cases was quite evenly distributed amongst the neuroendocrine tumours: 35% of carcinoids (22/62), 22% of atypical carcinoids (11/49) and 25% of small cell carcinoma (62/250). None of the squamous, adeno, or large cell undifferentiated carcinomas were immunoreactive for bombesin or the C-terminal peptide. Radioimmunoassay and chromatography of extracts of tumours recovered from wax blocks revealed high concentrations of C-terminal peptide immunoreactivity (241±66 pmol/g of tissue) in all 12 small cell carcinomas studied, moderate concentrations in carcinoid tumours (50±7 pmol/g) and none in non-small cell carcinomas. Patients with tumours showing immunoreactivity to the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin had a significantly shorter survival time than those without immunoreactive peptide (185±16.49 days, mean± SEM, and with 1128±226 days, respectivelyP〉 0.02). The apparent presence of the C-terminal peptide of human pro-bombesin in higher concentrations than bombesin in the more malignant class of endocrine tumours, mainly small cell carcinomas associated with the poorest prognosis, suggests that the antiserum to this C-terminal peptide is not only a useful pathological marker but may prove to be of value in investigating the biological behaviour of small cell carcinomas and predicting the clinical course of the disease.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; radioimmunoassay ; pancreas ; gut hormones ; vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary VIP has powerful stimulatory effects on both endocrine and exocrine pancreas but its localisation within the gland has not been established. In this study, human pancreas was obtained fresh at surgery (eleven) or within four hours of death (seven). The pancreas was also removed from rats (twenty-two). Immunocytochemical staining showed VIP to be present in fine nerve fibres in all areas of the pancreas. Many fibres were seen in the exocrine pancreas, running between the acini, and around ducts and blood vessels. In addition, dense networks of fibres were observed forming meshes around islets and occasional ganglia were found containing immunoreactive cell bodies. In general, there were fewer VIP fibres in the rat pancreas than in the human, but overall distribution was identical. The mean VIP content of whole human pancreatic tissue was 42±10 pmol/g wet weight (38±9 pmol/g in head, 49±6 pmol/g in body and 42±11 pmol/g in tail). Whole rat pancreatic tissue contained 28±7 pmol/g wet weight while preparations of isolated islets were found to contain 374±30 pmol/g. It is possible that the heavy VIP innervation of the islets described here indicates a role in the regulation of islet hormone release.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: VIP ; radioimmunoassay ; immunocytochemistry ; eyes ; urinary bladder ; prediabetes ; diabetic Chinese hamsters
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The eyes and urinary bladder of non-diabetic, prediabetic and diabetic Chinese hamsters were evaluated by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry to determine the content and distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The average concentration of VIP was increased in the eyes of all diabetic (pmol/g = 68%, pmol/organ = 50%) and prediabetic (pmol/g = 152%, pmol/organ = 115%) hamsters compared with age-matched non-diabetic animals. Immunocytochemistry showed that the elevation of VIP was primarily related to greater intensity of fluorescence of the nerve fibres in the vasculature of the choroid. The average content of VIP in the urinary bladder was greater in diabetic animals only on the basis of pmol/organ (135%) and in prediabetics on the basis of pmol/g (87%) compared with non-diabetic animals. Qualitative immunocytochemistry suggested that the elevated level of VIP was related to a larger distribution of nerve fibres in the urinary bladder of diabetic hamsters. The high level of VIP in the eyes and urinary bladder of diabetic and prediabetic hamsters is an interesting observation which should receive further study to determine whether it is an aetiological agent underlying the pathogenesis of ophthalmic complications and neurogenic bladder or the result of some pathological process which affects these organs.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 43 (1987), S. 723-724 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Autonomic/sensory nerves ; chromatography ; endocrine cells ; enzymes ; immunocytochemistry ; neuropeptides ; neurotransmitters ; processing of peptides ; radioimmunoassay ; regulatory peptides ; quantification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Immunocytochemistry ; neuropeptide Y ; radioimmunoassay ; rat pancreas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Significant quantities of a newly discovered peptide, neuropeptide Y, were found in the rat pancreas, where they were localized to nerves in the exocrine parenchyma and around arterial and ductal structures. Although unaffected by surgical parasympathectomy, the periarterial and periductal nerves were abolished by chemical sympathectomy, suggesting that NPY is partially costored with sympathetic transmitters in nerve fibers.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lung ; Neuroepithelial bodies ; Immunocytochemistry ; 7B2 Protein ; Serotonin ; Rana temporaria (Anura)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The neuroendocrine cell population of the lung of Rana temporaria has been studied by means of immunocytochemistry. Serotonin (5HT)- and polypeptide 7B2-immunoreactive neuroepithelial bodies have been observed in the epithelial lining of the lung. 5HT- but not 7B2-immunoreactive isolated endocrine cells have also been observed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Keywords: gastrointestinal tract ; pancreas ; 7B2 ; radioimmunoassay ; gel chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The distribution of a novel pituitary protein (7B2) was determined in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas of four mammalian species (man, pig, guinea pig, and rat) by a specific radioimmunoassay. The highest concentrations of cross-reacting immunoreactive 7B2 (IR-7B2) were observed in the pancreas and the proximal gut (antrum or duodenum). While the intestinal concentrations varied widely among species, pancreatic IR-7B2 concentrations appeared to be similar in all four species. In the rat, pancreatic islets were found to contain high concentrations of IR-7B2 (5.73± 0.14 fmol/islet, mean± sem). Neonatal capsaicin treatment and enteric nerve section did not affect the concentrations of IR-7B2 in the rat intestine. Layer separation of human gut showed that IR-7B2 is mainly (71± 8%) present in the epithelial fraction. Chromatographic analysis of intestinal and pancreatic extracts from the four species on Sephadex G-100 showed the presence of two immunoreactive peaks at Kav 0.3 and 0.6, but there were both inter- and intraspecies variations in the proportions of the larger and smaller molecular forms.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lung ; Endocrine cells ; Calcitonin generalated peptide ; Bromodeoxyuridine ; Differentiation ; Proliferation ; Hypoxia ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary We have tested the suggestion that the reported increase, in hypoxic rats, in the number of lung endocrine cells immunoreactive for the regulatory peptide CGRP is caused by an accumulation of peptide within the cells which renders them more detectable, rather than by a real increase in proliferation. The incorporation of continuously infused 5′-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into nuclei of CGRP-containing cells was studied by immunohistochemistry in the airway and respiratory epithelium of rats kept in a hypoxic (10% O2), normobaric conditions for 7 days and in normoxic, normobaric controls. Some CGRP-immunoreactive cells could also be labelled for BrdU. However, the ratio of the number of cells labelled with both CGRP and BrdU to the number of cells labelled with CGRP alone did not differ significantly between hypoxic and normoxic rats (7.1±0.7 and 6.1±1.2, respectively; mean±SEM; P=0.49). These data strongly suggest that CGRP-containing endocrine cells or their precursors do proliferate in adult rat lung, but that the proliferation is not increased significantly in hypoxia.
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