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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Subterranean clover ; Trifolium subterraneum ; redlegged earth mite ; Halotydeus destructor ; cotyledons ; attraction ; repellance ; lipid peroxidation products ; volatiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Redlegged earth mites (Halotydeus destructor) aggregated in larger numbers on cotyledons of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) previously damaged either by mite feeding or by mechanical injury than on undamaged cotyledons. This effect lasted for up to 7 days. The total volatile fractions derived from crushed cotyledons and its three major components, 2-(E)-hexenal, 1-octen-3-ol, and 1-octen-3-one, were tested for their effect on the aggregation of mites. Significantly more mites gathered on detached cotyledons treated with the metabolites at low concentrations than on controls, with 2-(E)-hexenal being the most effective. Mites were repelled by higher concentrations of the metabolites and 1-octen-3-one, the most active, killed mites at high concentrations. Fewer mites aggregated on DGI007 (resistant) than on Dalkeith (susceptible) cotyledons treated with droplets of the metabolites. The three volatile metabolites were recovered from the headspace of undamaged and of damaged cotyledons. Crushed cotyledons of Dalkeith produced higher levels of 2-(E)-hexenal and lower levels of 1-octen-3-one than undamaged cotyledons. The results suggest that damage-induced metabolites enhance the aggregation of redlegged earth mites at low concentrations and reduce aggregation at high concentrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Subterranean clover ; Trifolium subterraneum ; cotyledons ; redlegged earth mite ; Halotydeus destructor ; deterrence ; 1-octen-3-one ; volatiles ; host resistance ; antixenosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Artificially damaged cotyledons of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) released several volatile metabolites, including 1-octen-3-one, arising from lipid peroxidation. The amount of 1-octen-3-one produced was negatively correlated with feeding damage caused by the red-legged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) in nine out of 10 resistant and susceptibleT. subterraneum varieties tested. The EC50 of this compound in deterring mites from feeding in a membrane bioassay was 50 ppm. Cotyledon toughness was also involved in resistance. The resistant variety, S3615D, which has the lowest toughness value among the resistant varieties, produced the highest amount of 1-octen-3-one recovered from the headspace in 1 hr. Artificially damaged cotyledons of both susceptible Dalkeith and resistant DG1007, growing in shade, showed lower toughness, but had enhanced production of C8 volatile compounds and were avoided by mites during a 3-hr feeding test. When both 1-octen-3-one content and cotyledon toughness value were taken as cofactors in resistance, the resultant multiplication value yielded a more significantly negative correlation with mite feeding damage scores within the 10 varieties than either factor alone. We conclude that 1-octen-3-one has a role in resistance of subclover cotyledon to the mite.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9702
    Keywords: redlegged earth mite ; Halotydeus destructor ; cold storage ; low temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Survival of medium sized nymphal stages of redlegged earth mite Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) (mainly tritonymphs and deutonymphs) stored under low temperature (1.5° C) in sealed plastic boxes remained more than 50% after 12 days of storage, with some mites surviving for up to eight weeks. Adding fresh subclover leaves into the storage box increased the survival rate of mites from 12% to 28%, 19 days after the storage started. Mites stored for two weeks at low temperatures showed feeding activity in a screening experiment similar to mites collected directly from the field. This indicated that cold storage of redlegged earth mite can be used to build up mite numbers for large screening experiments, or to extend the period of availability of mites collected from the field. However, their reproductive ability was greatly reduced after three weeks at low temperature. Thus, care should be taken when using mites for experiments measuring reproduction. The implications of low temperatures for reducing field populations of mites in midwinter are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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