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  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY  (3)
  • smoking  (3)
  • BODY-MASS INDEX  (2)
Keywords
  • 1
    Keywords: CELL LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; CALCIUM ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; VITAMIN-D-RECEPTOR ; SERUM 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN-D ; 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D-3 ; SUPPLEMENT USE
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Individuals with higher blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels have a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the influence of 25(OH)D on mortality after CRC diagnosis is unknown. METHODS: The association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and CRC-specific (N = 444) and overall mortality (N = 541) was prospectively examined among 1,202 participants diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2003 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and corresponding 95% CIs according to 25(OH)D quintiles and genetic variation within the VDR and CASR genes. Potential dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic effect modifiers were also investigated. RESULTS: There were 541 deaths, 444 (82%) due to CRC. Mean follow-up was 73 months. In multivariable analysis, higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a statistically significant reduction in CRC-specific (P(trend) = 0.04) and overall mortality (P(trend) = 0.01). Participants with 25(OH)D levels in the highest quintile had an adjusted HR of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.50-0.93) for CRC-specific mortality and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.50-0.88) for overall mortality, compared with the lowest quintile. Except for a possible interaction by prediagnostic dietary calcium intake (P(interaction) = 0.01), no other potential modifying factors related to CRC survival were noted. The VDR (FokI and BsmI) and CASR (rs1801725) genotypes were not associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: High prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels are associated with improved survival of patients with CRC. Impact: Our findings may stimulate further research directed at investigating the effects of blood vitamin D levels before, at, and after CRC diagnosis on outcomes in CRC patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(4); 582-93. (c)2012 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22278364
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  • 2
    Keywords: SURVIVAL ; MORTALITY ; OBESITY ; smoking ; REGRESSION-MODELS ; MASS INDEX ; OVERWEIGHT ; ALS PATIENTS ; NUTRITIONAL-STATUS ; HYPERMETABOLISM
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the association between body fat and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with an appropriate prospective study design. METHODS: The EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study included 518,108 individuals recruited from the general population across 10 Western European countries. At recruitment, information on lifestyle was collected and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Cox hazard models were fitted to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and ALS mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-two ALS deaths (79 men and 143 women) occurred during the follow-up period (mean follow-up = 13 years). There was a statistically significant interaction between categories of body mass index and sex regarding ALS risk (p = 0.009): in men, a significant linear decrease of risk per unit of body mass index was observed (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.86-0.99 per kg/m(2)); among women, the risk was more than 3-fold increased for underweight compared with normal-weight women. Among women, a significant risk reduction increasing the waist/hip ratio was also evident: women in the top quartile had less than half the risk of ALS compared with those in the bottom quartile (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.93) with a borderline significant p value for trend across quartiles (p = 0.056). CONCLUSION: Increased prediagnostic body fat is associated with a decreased risk of ALS mortality.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23390184
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  • 3
    Keywords: ovarian cancer ; WOMEN ; smoking ; CARCINOGENS ; ALCOHOL ; EPIC cohort ; mucinous ; serous
    Abstract: New data regarding a positive association between smoking and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), especially the mucinous tumor type, has started to emerge. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between different measures of smoking exposures and subtypes of EOC in a large cohort of women from 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort is a multicenter prospective study initiated in 1992. The questionnaires included data about dietary, lifestyle, and health factors. Information about cigarette smoking was collected from individuals in all participating countries. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratio (HR) of EOC overall and serous, mucinous, and endometroid histological subtypes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with different measures of smoking exposures adjusting for confounding variables. Altogether 836 incident EOC cases were identified among 326,831 women. The tumors were classified as 400 serous, 83 mucinous, 80 endometroid, 35 clear cell, and 238 unspecified. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a significantly increased risk for mucinous tumors [HR = 1.85 (95% CI 1.08-3.16)] and those smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day had a doubling in risk [HR = 2.25(95% CI 1.26-4.03)] as did those who had smoked less than 15 pack-years of cigarettes [HR = 2.18 (95% CI 1.07-4.43)]. The results from the EPIC study add further evidence that smoking increases risk of mucinous ovarian cancer and support the notion that the effect of smoking varies according to histological subtype.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21678398
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; BLOOD ; Germany ; THERAPY ; RISK ; RISKS ; PROTEIN ; colon ; CYCLE ; ASSOCIATION ; hormone ; HEALTH ; resistance ; AGE ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; smoking ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; cancer risk ; COLON-CANCER ; cholesterol ; C-REACTIVE PROTEIN ; body mass index ; nutrition ; education ; NESTED CASE-CONTROL ; CROHNS-DISEASE ; inflammation ; insulin ; SERUM ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; colon cancer ; METAANALYSIS ; PHASE ; INSULIN-RESISTANCE ; metabolic syndrome ; REPLACEMENT THERAPY ; prospective ; CANCER-RISK ; colorectal neoplasms ; C-PEPTIDE ; REPLACEMENT ; WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ; INFLAMMATORY MARKERS ; nested case-control study ; BODY-MASS ; COLLECTION ; HORMONE-THERAPY ; Abdominal ; Hyperinsulinism ; journals ; nested case control study ; hyperglycemia ; hyperlipidemias
    Abstract: The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of 〉= 3.0 mg/L versus 〈 1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20634278
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  • 5
    Keywords: COHORT ; WOMEN ; OBESITY ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY ; OVERWEIGHT ; LYMPHOHEMATOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES ; ADULT LEUKEMIA
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity have been suggested as a risk factor for leukemia. Impaired immune function associated with obesity, increased insulin-like growth factor-I activity and stimulating effects of leptin suggest a possible biological link between anthropometric measures and leukemia. However, evidence from epidemiological studies has been inconsistent. We examined the potential association between prospective measurements of body size and risk of leukemia among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: During follow-up (mean = 11.52 years, standard deviation = 2.63), 671 leukemia (lymphoid leukemia = 50.1 %, myeloid leukemia = 43.2 %) cases were identified. Anthropometric measures including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured. Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the association between anthropometric measures and risk of leukemia. RESULTS: No associations were observed between anthropometric measures and total leukemia, and lymphoid leukemia. Risk of myeloid leukemia significantly increased for higher categories of BMI and WC among women. Analyses by subtype of myeloid leukemia showed an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for higher categories of WHR among women. This association seemed to be reversed for chronic myeloid leukemia. No association between anthropometric measures and myeloid leukemia were observed among men except an increased risk of AML with height. CONCLUSION: The study showed no associations between anthropometric measures and total leukemia, and lymphoid leukemia among men and women. A possible association between BMI as general obesity and WC as abdominal obesity and increased risk of myeloid leukemia among women were observed.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23288400
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  • 6
    Keywords: COHORT ; HEALTH ; OBESITY ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; nutrition ; REGRESSION ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; SIZE ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; COMPETING RISKS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: A moderate association exists between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer. Less is known about the effect of weight change. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between BMI and weight change and subsequent colon and rectal cancer risk. DESIGN: This was studied among 328,781 participants in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating study (mean age: 50 y). Body weight was assessed at recruitment and on average 5 y later. Self-reported weight change (kg/y) was categorized in sex-specific quintiles, with quintiles 2 and 3 combined as the reference category (men: -0.6 to 0.3 kg/y; women: -0.4 to 0.4 kg/y). In the subsequent years, participants were followed for the occurrence of colon and rectal cancer (median period: 6.8 y). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to study the association. RESULTS: A total of 1261 incident colon cancer and 747 rectal cancer cases were identified. BMI at recruitment was statistically significantly associated with colon cancer risk in men (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Moderate weight gain (quintile 4) in men increased risk further (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), but this relation did not show a clear trend. In women, BMI or weight gain was not related to subsequent risk of colon cancer. No statistically significant associations for weight loss and colon cancer or for BMI and weight changes and rectal cancer were found. CONCLUSIONS: BMI attained at adulthood was associated with colon cancer risk. Subsequent weight gain or loss was not related to colon or rectal cancer risk in men or women.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24225355
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