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  • thermal diffusivity  (3)
  • CD40L  (2)
  • Conference proceedings  (2)
  • Springer  (7)
  • International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
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  • Springer  (7)
  • International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Mössbauer effect ; other γ-ray spectroscopy ; Phonons and vibrations in crystal lattices ; Conference proceedings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Summary The phonon energy spectra of a polycrystalline α-Fe foil were observed at 150 K and 300 K by using the nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. In each spectrum, inelastic scattering was observed at both sides of the elastic peak. It was found that the ratio of the elastic-scattering component and the asymmetry of the intensity of the side bands observed at 150 K are larger than those observed at 300 K, respectively. The observed temperature-dependent spectra are in good agreement with the spectra calculated from the phonon energy distribution function. One of the advantageous features of this method is that the excitation of only a specific element is possible. Our results show that this method is applicable to the study of lattice dynamics and opens a new field of the nuclear resonant scattering spectroscopy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Keywords: Flux pinning ; flux motion ; fluxon-defect interactions ; Critical currents ; Conference proceedings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Summary The results of low-temperature magnetic-relaxation experiments in TlBaCaCuO superconductors (2212 and 2223 phase) are reported. They give evidence of a crossover from a thermally activated regime of flux motion to a nonthermally activated one. The magnetic-relaxation rate is found to become temperature independent below ≅7K and ≅3K, for the 2212 and 2223 phase, respectively. Its value compares well with that predicted by the theories of flux motion by quantum tunnelling.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: CD30L ; CD40L ; FasL ; Hodgkin's disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Reed–Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease express CD30and CD40 receptors. The ligands for these receptors have been reported to have pleiotropic biologic activities in vitro, including induction of cell death. Expression of the ligands for these receptors in lymph nodes involved with Hodgkin's disease is not known. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine CD30 ligand (L) andCD40L expression in lymph nodes of patients with Hodgkin's disease, and to study CD30L expression on nodal lymphocyte subsets. Materials and methods: CD30L expression on subsets of lymphocytes of five lymph nodes involved with Hodgkin's disease was determined by two-color FACScan. Messenger RNA expression of CD30L and CD40L was determined by there verse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method performed on seven specimens involved with Hodgkin's disease (five lymph nodes and two spleens). Results: Four of seven specimens (57%) contained cells that expressed CD30L mRNA and three specimens (43%) containedCD40L-expressing cells. The mean percentage of nodal lymphocytes expressingCD30L surface protein was ≤20%. Conclusion: Hodgkin's disease lymph nodes and spleens frequently lackCD30L- and CD40L-expressing cells, and when CD30L is expressed, it is usually detected on few numbers of lymphocytes. The differences in the level of expression of these ligands in Hodgkin's disease lymph nodes may be related to the disease's clinical behavior.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1569-8041
    Keywords: CD30L ; CD40L ; FasL ; Hodgkin's disease
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Background: Reed–Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease express CD30and CD40 receptors. The ligands for these receptors have been reported tohave pleiotropic biologic activities in vitro, including induction of celldeath. Expression of the ligands for these receptors in lymph nodes involvedwith Hodgkin's disease is not known. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine CD30 ligand (L) andCD40L expression in lymph nodes of patients with Hodgkin's disease, and tostudy CD30L expression on nodal lymphocyte subsets. Materials and methods: CD30L expression on subsets of lymphocytes of fivelymph nodes involved with Hodgkin's disease was determined by two-colorFACScan. Messenger RNA expression of CD30L and CD40L was determined by thereverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method performed onseven specimens involved with Hodgkin's disease (five lymph nodes and twospleens). Results: Four of seven specimens (57%) contained cells thatexpressed CD30L mRNA and three specimens (43%) containedCD40L-expressing cells. The mean percentage of nodal lymphocytes expressingCD30L surface protein was ≤20%. Conclusion: Hodgkin's disease lymph nodes and spleens frequently lackCD30L- and CD40L-expressing cells, and when CD30L is expressed, it is usuallydetected on few numbers of lymphocytes. The differences in the level ofexpression of these ligands in Hodgkin's disease lymph nodes may be relatedto the disease's clinical behavior.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: molten carbonates ; molten nitrate ; thermal conductivity ; thermal diffusivity ; transient short-hot-wire technique
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A transient short-hot-wire technique has been successfully used to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of molten salts (NaNO3, Li2CO3/K2CO3, and Li2CO3/Na2CO3) which are highly corrosive. This method was developed from the hot-wire technique and is based on two-dimensional numerical solutions of unsteady heat conduction from a short wire with the same length-to-diameter ratio and boundary conditions as those used in the actual experiments. In the present study, the wires are coated with a pure Al2O3 thin film by using a sputtering apparatus. The length and radius of the hot wire and the resistance ratio of the lead terminals and the entire probe are calibrated using water and toluene with known thermophysical properties. Using such a calibrated probe, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of molten nitrate are measured within errors of 3 and 20%, respectively. Also, the thermal conductivity of the molten carbonates can be measured within an error of 5%, although the thermal diffusivity can be measured within an error of 50%.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: composites ; copper ; flash method ; iron ; thermal diffusivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A method for measuring thermal diffusivity in one of the layers of a two-layer composite sample has been described. The heat transfer problem of a two-layer sample associated with pulse thermal diffusivity measurements has been analyzed for two cases: exponential and square-wave pulses. According to our measurements, a triangular heat-pulse function approximates reasonably well the output of the Nd-glass laser. In this paper, an expression is derived for the temperature transient at the rear face of two-layer sample being subjected to a triangular heat-pulse input on the front face. The analytical solution of the problem forms the basis of our method of data reduction. This solution has been programmed for computer processing of the data. The method described here has been successfully tested by limited measurements on copper and iron.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: anisotropic materials ; pyrolytic graphite ; pyrolytic boron nitride ; thermal conductivity ; thermal diffusivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The laser pulse method can be successfully applied to the measurement of thermal diffusivity of isotropic materials subject to some assumptions. For anisotropic materials, this method is applicable to the measurement of principal thermal diffusivity only on the condition that there is no difference in direction between the principal axis and that of the temperature gradient. After analyzing the heat conduction process in an anisotropic solid, it has been shown that large errors in the measurement of thermal diffusivity would exist if the direction of the principal axis deviates inconspicuously from that of the temperature gradient. The experimental results of thermal diffusivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples with various deviation angles have been compared with the analytical results. The laser pulse method is not applicable to measurements on semitransparent pyrolytic boron nitride (PBN). We adopted a two-layer composite sample to measure the thermal diffusivity of PBN in the c direction and a particular graphite-PBN composite sample has been prepared which has a very low thermal resistance at the interface. The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of PG (below 2300°C) and PBN (below 1000°C) are given.
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