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  • tumor  (11)
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  • 1
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; AGENTS ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; VIVO ; SAMPLES ; TUMORS ; TIME ; PATIENT ; INDUCTION ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; treatment ; PROGRESSION ; resistance ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; PLASMA ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; chemotherapy ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; DERIVATIVES ; HEPATOMA-CELLS ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; CARCINOMAS ; PHARMACOKINETICS ; AGENT ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; EX-VIVO ; SOLID TUMORS ; MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; dexamethasone ; PROMOTION ; USA ; GLUCOCORTICOIDS ; prospective ; in vivo ; clinical study
    Abstract: Background: Glucocorticoids have been used widely in conjunction with cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis in hematological cells and to prevent nausea and emesis. However, recent data including ours, suggest induction of therapy resistance by glucocorticoids in solid tumors, although it is unclear whether this happens only in few carcinomas or is a more common cell type specific phenomenon. Material and Methods: We performed an overall statistical analysis of our new and recent data obtained with 157 tumor probes evaluated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The effect of glucocorticoids on apoptosis, viability and cell cycle progression under diverse clinically important questions was examined. Results: New in vivo results demonstrate glucocorticoid - induced chemotherapy resistance in xenografted prostate cancer. In an overall statistical analysis we found glucocorticoid - induced resistance in 89% of 157 analysed tumor samples. Resistance is common for several cytotoxic treatments and for several glucocorticoid - derivatives and due to an inhibition of apoptosis, promotion of viability and cell cycle progression. Resistance occurred at clinically achievable peak plasma levels of patients under anti - emetic glucocorticoid therapy and below, lasted for a long time, after one single dose, but was reversible upon removal of glucocorticoids. Two nonsteroidal alternative anti - emetic agents did not counteract anticancer treatment and may be sufficient to replace gluco corticoids in cotreatment of carcinoma patients. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the need for prospective clinical studies as well as for detailed mechanistic studies of GC - induced cell - type specific pro - and anti - apoptotic signalling
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17224649
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; IN-VIVO ; THERAPY ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; HYBRIDIZATION ; TUMORS ; radiation ; PATIENT ; NF-KAPPA-B ; FAMILY ; MEMBER ; NUCLEAR-FACTOR ; NORMAL TISSUE ; CISPLATIN ; PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH ; ALPHA-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; DNA-DAMAGING AGENTS ; GLOMERULAR ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; GRANULOSA-CELLS ; LEUKEMIA- CELLS ; LUNG-CARCINOMA ; T- LYMPHOCYTES
    Abstract: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer often have severe side effects that limit their efficacy. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used as cotreatment because they may have potent proapoptotic properties and reduce nausea, hyperemesis, and acute toxicity on normal tissue. In contrast to the proapoptotic effect of GCs in lymphoid cells, resistance toward cancer therapy-mediated apoptosis was induced in solid tumors of human cervix and lung carcinomas. Filter hybridization, expression data, as well as functional assays identified multiple core apoptosis molecules, which are regulated by GCs in a pro- or antiapoptotic manner. Both antiapoptotic genes such as FLIP and members of the Bcl-2 and IAP family as well as proapoptotic elements of the death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways were down-regulated in carcinomas resulting in a decreased activity of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. In contrast, death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis signaling as well as caspase activity was enhanced by dexamethasone in lymphoid cells. To restore apoptosis sensitivity in dexamethasone-treated carcinomas, caspase-8 and caspase-9 were transfected. This resensitized tumor cells in vitro and xenografts in vivo to cisplatin induced cell death. These data therefore raise concern about the widespread combined use of GCs with antineoplastic drugs or agents in the clinical management of cancer patients
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12810637
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  • 3
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; EXPRESSION ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; LUNG ; MODEL ; MODELS ; VITRO ; VIVO ; DEATH ; NEW-YORK ; GENE ; TUMORS ; LINES ; MICE ; FAMILY ; MEMBER ; MEMBERS ; treatment ; immunohistochemistry ; MALIGNANCIES ; ASSAY ; resistance ; CELL-DEATH ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; Western-blot ; NUDE-MICE ; chemotherapy ; CARCINOMAS ; STRATEGIES ; western blot ; FAILURE ; LUNG-CARCINOMA ; CASPASE 8 ; nude mice ; Bcl-2 ; CD95 ; DRUG-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; XENOGRAFTS ; CD95/Fas/APO-1,TRAIL,gene therapy,drug reststance,cancer therapy ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM
    Abstract: Non small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is a highly lethal malignancy that often becomes resistant to chemotherapy. To determine whether alterations in apoptotic signaling might contribute to such resistance, we established in vitro and in vivo models for sensitive and resistant human NSCLC. We found that resistance is due to multiple defects found in expression of CD95-L, CD95 and members of the Bcl-2 and IAP family, as well as caspase-8, -9 and -3 as examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, gene array analysis and functional assays. Failure to activate death receptor, as well as mitochondrial apoptosis signaling, points to a central role of caspases. To restore apoptosis signaling we transfected NSCLC xenografts on nude mice with caspase-8 and -9. This treatment strongly induced apoptosis per se and sensitized the tumors to cisplatin-induced cell death. Thus, these findings indicate that re-expression of caspases might be an effective strategy to restore sensitivity for chemotherapy in NSCLC in vivo. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; MODELS ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; VIVO ; PROTEINS ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; TIME ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; INDEX ; TISSUES ; CONTRAST ; ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY ; TARGET ; MOUSE ; resistance ; CARCINOMA CELLS ; CELL-DEATH ; MEMBRANE ; CARCINOMA-CELLS ; adenocarcinoma ; NORMAL TISSUE ; REVEALS ; CHILDREN ; pancreatic cancer ; pancreatic carcinoma ; TRAIL ; HUMAN PROSTATE-CANCER ; TRAIL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; DRUG-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; INHIBITORS ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; THERAPIES ; DECOY RECEPTORS ; development ; X-LINKED INHIBITOR ; pancreatic adenocarcinoma ; USA ; ANTAGONISTS ; pancreatic tumor ; IRRADIATION-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; XIAP ; therapeutic ; ALPHA-DEPENDENT APOPTOSIS
    Abstract: Evasion of apoptosis is a characteristic feature of pancreatic cancer, a prototypic cancer that is refractory to current treatment approaches. Hence, there is an urgent need to design rational strategies that counter apoptosis resistance. To explore X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer, we analyzed the expression of XIAP in pancreatic tumor samples and evaluated the effect of small molecule XIAP inhibitors alone and in combination with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) against pancreatic carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that XIAP is highly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma samples compared with normal pancreatic ducts. Small molecule XIAP inhibitors synergize with TRAIL to induce apoptosis and to inhibit long-term clonogenic survival of pancreatic carcinoma cells. In contrast, they do not reverse the lack of toxicity of TRAIL on nonmalignant cells in vitro or normal tissues in vivo, pointing to a therapeutic index. Most importantly, XIAP inhibitors cooperate with TRAIL to trigger apoptosis and suppress pancreatic carcinoma growth in vivo in two preclinical models, i.e., the chorioallantoic membrane model and a mouse xenograft model. Parallel immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue under therapy reveals that the XIAP inhibitor acts in concert with TRAIL to cause caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings provide, for the first time, evidence in vivo that XIAP inhibitors prime pancreatic carcinoma cells for TRAM-induced apoptosis and potentiate the antitumor activity of TRAIL against established pancreatic carcinoma. These findings build the rationale for further (pre)clinical development of XIAP inhibitors and TRAIL against pancreatic cancer. [Cancer Res 2009;69(6):2425-34]
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19258513
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  • 5
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    Oncogene 23 (16), 2950-2966 
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; CELL LUNG-CANCER ; Germany ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; THERAPY ; DEATH ; DRUG ; MOLECULES ; TISSUE ; NF-KAPPA-B ; MOLECULE ; TARGET ; resistance ; CELL-DEATH ; ELEMENTS ; EFFICACY ; chemotherapy ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS ; CANCER-CELLS ; FAILURE ; RECEPTORS ; REGULATOR ; DEATH RECEPTORS ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; FLICE-INHIBITORY PROTEIN ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; DRUG-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; apoptosis,death receptors,CD95,drugs,resistance ; BAX PROTEIN EXPRESSION ; BCL-2 ANTISENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDE
    Abstract: Apoptosis, the cell's intrinsic death program, is a key regulator of tissue homeostasis. An imbalance between cell death and proliferation may result in tumor formation. Also, killing of cancer cells by cytotoxic therapies such as chemotherapy, gamma-irradiation or ligation of death receptors is predominantly mediated by triggering apoptosis in target cells. In addition to the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, elements of death receptor signaling pathways have been implied to contribute to the efficacy of cancer therapy. Failure to undergo apoptosis in response to anticancer therapy may lead to resistance. Also, deregulated expression of death receptor pathway molecules may contribute to tumorigenesis and tumor escape from endogenous growth control. Understanding the molecular events that regulate apoptosis induced by anticancer therapy and how cancer cells evade apoptosis may provide new opportunities for pathway-based rational therapy and for drug development
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15077156
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; LUNG ; VITRO ; VIVO ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; DEATH ; PROTEIN ; EFFICIENCY ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; MICE ; TRANSDUCTION ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; INDUCTION ; T-CELLS ; SUPPRESSION ; PARTICLES ; virus ; VECTOR ; CELL-DEATH ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; NUDE-MICE ; EFFICIENT ; CANCER-CELLS ; NORMAL TISSUE ; RETROVIRAL VECTORS ; CONSTRUCTION ; VIRAL VECTORS ; TUMOR CELLS ; TRAIL ; TRANSDUCTION EFFICIENCY ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; INTEGRATION ; RECOMBINANT ; RE ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; EX-VIVO ; LENTIVIRAL VECTOR ; analysis ; TUMOR-CELL ; TRANSFORMED-CELLS ; EVALUATE ; in vivo ; EXTENT ; NECROSIS ; APO2L/TRAIL ; anticancer agent ; translational research ; CANCER GENE-THERAPY ; gene therapy for solid tumors
    Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent, which selectively induces apoptosis in many transformed cells without apparent toxic side effects in normal tissue. We recently described the construction and characterization of a lentiviral vector for expression of TRAIL. In this report, we evaluate its suitability for therapeutic application. In vitro, we observed specific induction of apoptosis upon transduction in human lung cancer cells. Cell death was partially dependent on successful integration and TRAIL expression by the vectors, but was to some extent mediated by protein carryover, as we found TRAIL protein associated with virus particles. Transduction of subcutaneously growing lung tumors on nude mice with lentiviral TRAIL mediated a transient suppression of tumor growth. Analysis of tumor sections revealed that transduction efficiency of lentiviral control vector but not of lentiviral TRAIL vector was high. This was because of the direct cytotoxic activity of recombinant TRAIL present in viral particles, which prevented efficient tumor transduction. These data therefore suggest that enveloped viral vectors constitutively expressing TRAIL are well suited for ex vivo applications, such as the transduction of tumor-homing cells, but may have a lower effect when used directly for the transduction of tumor cells in vivo
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17186015
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  • 7
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; CELL ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; THERAPY ; SUPPORT ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; GENE ; GENES ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; cell line ; LINES ; PATIENT ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; prognosis ; CELL-LINES ; FORM ; DELETION ; resistance ; MUTATION ; CELL-LINE ; leukemia ; STRATEGIES ; CHILDREN ; cell lines ; TRAIL ; TP53 ; TRAIL-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; INHIBITORS ; signaling ; FEATURES ; THERAPIES ; CLL ; regulation ; CD95-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; interaction ; development ; X-LINKED INHIBITOR ; LEVEL ; B-CELL ; NECROSIS ; caspase-3 ; XIAP ; STRATEGY ; death-receptor ; TP53 mutation ; FORMS ; 17p deletion ; UNFAVORABLE PROGNOSIS
    Abstract: Evasion of apoptosis is a hallmark of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), calling for new strategies to bypass resistance. Here, we provide first evidence that small-molecule X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) inhibitors in combination with the death receptor ligand tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) present a novel approach to trigger apoptosis in CLL, including subgroups with resistant disease or unfavorable prognosis. XIAP, cellular IAP (cIAP) 1, and cIAP2 are expressed at high levels in primary CLL samples. Proof-of-concept studies in CLL cell lines show that subtoxic concentrations of XIAP inhibitors significantly enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and also sensitize for CD95-mediated apoptosis. Importantly also in primary CLL samples, XIAP inhibitor acts in concert with TRAIL to trigger apoptosis in 18 of 27 (67%) cases. This XIAP inhibitor-induced and TRAIL-induced apoptosis involves caspase-3 activation and is blocked by the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk. The cooperative interaction of XIAP inhibitor and TRAIL is even evident in distinct subgroups of patients with poor prognostic features (i.e., with 17p deletion, TP53 mutation, chemotherapy-refractory disease, or unmutated V(H) genes). Interestingly, cases with unmutated V(H) genes were significantly more sensitive to XIAP inhibitor-induced and TRAIL-induced apoptosis compared with V(H) gene-mutated samples, pointing to a role of B-cell receptor signaling in apoptosis regulation. By showing that XIAP inhibitors in combination with TRAIL present a new strategy to trigger apoptosis even in resistant forms and poor prognostic subgroups of CLL, our findings have important implications for the development of apoptosis-based therapies in CLL.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19920200
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  • 8
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; VIVO ; DEATH ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; cell line ; TUMORS ; gene therapy ; LINES ; MICE ; RELEASE ; TRANSDUCTION ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; RESPONSES ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; CELL-LINES ; ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY ; IMMUNE-RESPONSES ; virus ; VECTORS ; CELL-DEATH ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; CANCER-CELLS ; DELIVERY ; SUPERFAMILY ; immune response ; IMMUNE-RESPONSE ; GENE-THERAPY ; RECOMBINANT ADENOASSOCIATED VIRUS ; adeno-associated virus ; ADENOASSOCIATED VIRUS ; AAV ; DEATH RECEPTORS ; GENE DELIVERY ; HUMAN HEPATOCYTES ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; AAV,TRAIL,colon cancer,apoptosis
    Abstract: Gene transfer vectors based on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) are used for various experimental and clinical therapeutic approaches. In the present study, we demonstrate the utility of rAAV as a tumoricidal agent in human colorectal cancer. We constructed an rAAV vector that expresses tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2L) and used it to transduce human colorectal cancer cells. TRAIL belongs to the TNF superfamily of cytokines that are involved in various immune responses and apoptotic processes. It has been shown to induce cell death specifically in cancer cells. Transduction with AAV. TRAIL gave rise to rapid expression of TRAIL, followed by induction of apoptosis, which could be inhibited by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD. fmk, in several human colon cancer cell lines. The apoptotic mechanism included activation of caspase-3, as well as cytochrome c release from mitochondria. The outgrowth of human colorectal tumors grown in mice was completely blocked by transduction with AAV. TRAIL in vitro, while in vivo transduction significantly inhibited the growth of established tumors. AAV vectors could provide a safe method of gene delivery and offer a novel method of using TRAIL as a therapeutic protein
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14999225
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  • 9
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; radiotherapy ; tumor ; AGENTS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; human ; THERAPY ; DISEASE ; EXPOSURE ; TUMORS ; LINES ; TIME ; PATIENT ; BREAST ; resistance ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; CELL-LINE ; chemotherapy ; LINE ; BLADDER-CANCER ; BENIGN ; CISPLATIN ; CANCER-THERAPY ; paclitaxel ; LEUKEMIA-CELLS ; renal cell carcinoma ; GEMCITABINE ; RE ; cancer therapy ; dexamethasone ; GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; NAUSEA ; corticosteroids ; GLUCOCORTICOIDS ; LOSSES ; GAMMA-IRRADIATION ; CANCERS ; 5-FU ; bladder carcinoma ; testicular carcinoma
    Abstract: Purpose: Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are widely used for medication of urological diseases, e.g., as cotreatment of advanced prostate cancer, to improve appetite, weight loss, fatigue, relieve bone pain, diminish ureteric obstruction, to reduce the production of adrenal androgens, as an antiemetic in patients undergoing chemo- and/or radiotherapy together with serving as "standard" therapy arm in randomized studies. While the potent pro-apoptotic properties and the supportive effects of glucocorticoids to tumor therapy in lymphoid cells are well studied, the impact to growth of prostate and other urological carcinomas is unknown. Methods: We isolated cells from surgical resections of 21 prostate tumors and measured apoptosis and viability in these primary cells and 17 established cell lines from human prostate, bladder, renal cell and testicular carcinomas. Results: We found that dexamethasone induces resistance regarding exposure to several cytotoxic agents such as taxol, gemcitabine, cisplatin, 5-FU and gamma-irradiation in 86% of the freshly isolated prostate tumors and in 100% of the established urological cell lines. No difference in dexamethasone-mediated protection was found in normal, benign and malignant prostate tumors. Conclusions: These data show for the first time that dexamethasone induced therapy resistance in urological carcinomas is not the exception but a more common phenomenon and implicate that glucocorticoids may have two faces in cancer therapy, a beneficial and a dangerous one
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16294015
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  • 10
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; THERAPY ; DEATH ; GENE ; gene therapy ; LINES ; NF-KAPPA-B ; LIGAND ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; CELL-LINES ; ANTITUMOR-ACTIVITY ; resistance ; VECTOR ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; DAMAGE ; DNA-DAMAGE ; CISPLATIN ; CELL-SURFACE ; RECEPTORS ; OVEREXPRESSION ; cell lines ; CANCER-THERAPY ; TRAIL ; ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM ; HUMAN HEPATOCYTES ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; CD95 ; MALIGNANT-CELLS ; HUMAN T-CELLS ; RE ; HUMAN CANCER ; cancer therapy ; LENTIVIRAL VECTOR ; GENE INDUCTION ; TUMOR-CELL ; DNA damage ; TRANSFORMED-CELLS ; CANDIDATE ; RESISTANT ; VARIETIES ; NECROSIS ; CANCER-CELLS RESISTANT ; resistance mechanism
    Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in many transformed cells, suggesting TRAIL as an ideal candidate for cancer gene therapy. A main obstacle in cancer therapy is intrinsic or acquired therapy resistance of malignant cells. To study induction of resistance against TRAIL, we generated lentiviral vectors allowing efficient TRAIL expression and apoptosis induction in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Within days upon TRAIL overexpression, cells became resistant towards TRAIL, but not to CD95 ligation or DNA damage by cisplatin. Cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors 1 and 2 was completely abrogated in resistant cells due to intracellular retention of the receptors by TRAIL. SiRNA directed against TRAIL resensitized the resistant cells by restoring cell surface expression of TRAIL receptors. These findings represent a novel resistance mechanism towards TRAIL, specifically caused by TRAIL overexpression, and question the use of TRAIL expression in tumor-cell targeting gene therapy
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16470224
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