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  • Articles  (2)
  • 2015-2019  (2)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-11-02
    Description: Chronic inflammation in the colorectum, a significant contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis, can be triggered by the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways such as those initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nuclear factor B (NF-B). Although experimental evidence supports calcium and vitamin D potentially modifying these proinflammatory pathways in the colorectum, human data in these regards are scarce. We investigated supplemental calcium (1,200 mg daily) and/or vitamin D 3 (1,000 IU daily) effects on inflammatory signaling pathway-related biomarkers in a subset of 105 participants from a colorectal adenoma recurrence chemoprevention clinical trial. We assessed expression of TLR4 and TLR5, which recognize the bacterial components lipopolysaccharides and flagellin, respectively, and phospho-IKKα/β (pIKKα/β), a biomarker of inflammation, in the normal-appearing rectal crypt epithelium and stroma using standardized, automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Following 1 year of treatment, TLR4, TLR5, and pIKKα/β expression in the rectal mucosa did not statistically significantly change with vitamin D or calcium supplementation, taken alone or in combination. Several baseline participant characteristics, including body mass index, history of sessile serrated adenomas, high red/processed meat intake, and high levels of rectal epithelial cell proliferation (as measured by MIB-1/Ki-67), were associated with higher baseline expression of TLRs or pIKKα/β. Our findings suggest that vitamin D and calcium may have no substantial effect on the investigated biomarkers. However, several modifiable lifestyle factors may be associated with TLRs and pIKKα/β expression in the normal rectal mucosa, supporting their future investigation as potentially treatable, preneoplastic risk factors for colorectal neoplasms. Cancer Prev Res; 11(11); 707–16. ©2018 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1940-6207
    Electronic ISSN: 1940-6215
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-04
    Description: In vitro evidence implicates oxidative stress in many adverse health conditions, including colorectal neoplasia. In human studies, however, oxidative stress is measured by imperfect biomarkers, which are inconsistently associated with health outcomes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) offers one possible solution by modeling a latent (unobserved) construct from multiple biomarkers. Our goal was to investigate the association of a latent oxidative stress variable with colorectal adenoma. Using SEM, we analyzed pooled data from two cross-sectional studies of colorectal adenoma ( n = 526) that measured five plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation that comprised the latent oxidative stress variable: F 2 -isoprostanes (FIP), fluorescent oxidation products (FOP), mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) copy number, -tocopherol (Gtoc), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Higher levels of oxidative stress were associated with colorectal adenoma [OR = 3.23 per SD increase in oxidative stress; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28–8.18]. The latent variable estimate was considerably stronger than the associations of adenoma with the individual biomarkers, which were modest and mostly nonsignificant. Risk factors were associated with adenoma via the oxidative stress pathway, particularly overweight and obesity with an OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10–2.81; and OR = 2.95; 95% CI, 1.28–12.45, respectively. Oxidative stress may be positively associated with colorectal adenoma, and important risk factors may act through this mechanism, but the cross-sectional design of the current study precludes observing the directionality of associations. The presence of an adenoma could affect levels of the circulating biomarkers; thus, we should be cautious of strong conclusions until the findings are replicated in a follow-up study. Cancer Prev Res; 11(1); 52–58. ©2017 AACR .
    Print ISSN: 1940-6207
    Electronic ISSN: 1940-6215
    Topics: Medicine
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