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  • Articles  (146)
  • 2000-2004
  • 1995-1999  (146)
  • 1980-1984
  • 1997  (146)
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  • Articles  (146)
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  • 2000-2004
  • 1995-1999  (146)
  • 1980-1984
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7373
    Keywords: low-grade gliomas ; brain mapping ; extent of resection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The impact of surgery on outcome of adult patients with low-grade gliomas is controversial. Without prospective randomized treatment trials, one is primarily dependent on retrospective studies to address this issue. This paper reviews the recent clinical series of low-grade gliomas in which the association between extent of resection (EOR) and outcome could be analyzed. Functional stimulation mapping methods will be described to point out their critical role in maximizing the extent of resection while minimizing the risk associated with radical resection of low-grade gliomas. Studies from the CT-era analyzed with multivariate statistical methods were emphasized. The analysis of these studies points out that, for astrocytomas, there is no clear consensus that a greater EOR improves survival, but in most series under review, greater EOR significantly extended the survival of patients with oligodendroglioma. Unfortunately, there is little data which specifically analyzes and stratifies the outcome for other end-points such as time to progression, malignant degeneration, mortality and morbidity, and duration of high quality survival by EOR.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1662-9779
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1619-7089
    Keywords: Key words: Dementia of the Alzheimer type ; Diffuse Lewy body disease ; Single-photon emission tomography ; Brain perfusion patterns ; Dopamine transporter
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Dementia of the Alzheimer-type (DAT) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, variably combined with frontal lobe release signs, parkinsonian symptoms and myoclonus. The features of diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), the second most common cause of degenerative dementia, include progressive cognitive deterioration, often associated with levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, fluctuations of cognitive and motor functions, psychotic symptoms (visual and auditory hallucinations, depression), hypersensitivity to neuroleptics and orthostatic hypotension. A recent report suggests that positron emission tomography studies in patients with degenerative dementia may be useful in the differential diagnosis of DAT and DLBD. However, the diagnostic role of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) studies remains to be established. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate regional cerebral perfusion [with either technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) or 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) SPET] and striatal dopamine transporter density [using iodine-123 2β-carboxymethoxy-3β-[4-iodophenyl]tropane (123I-β-CIT) SPET] in patients with DAT and DLBD. Six patients with probable DAT and seven patients with probable DLBD were studied. Blinded qualitative assessment by four independent raters of 99mTc-HMPAO or 99mTc-ECD SPET studies revealed bilateral temporal and/or parietal hypoperfusion in all DAT patients. There was additional frontal hypoperfusion in two patients and occipital hypoperfusion in one patient. In the DLBD group, regional cerebral perfusion had a different pattern. In addition to temporoparietal hypoperfusion there was occipital hypoperfusion resembling a horseshoe defect in six of seven patients. In the DAT group, the mean 3-h striatal/cerebellar ratio of 123I-β-CIT binding was 2.5±0.4, with an increase to 5.5±1.1 18 h after tracer injection. In comparison, in the DLBD patients the mean 3-h striatal/cerebellar ratio of 123I-β-CIT binding was significantly reduced to 1.7±0.3, with a modest increase to 2.1±0.4 18 h after tracer injection (P〈0.05, Scheffe test, ANOVA). These results suggest that 99mTc-HMPAO or 99mTc-ECD and 123I-β-CIT SPET may contribute to the differential diagnosis between DAT and DLBD, showing different perfusion patterns and more severe impairment of dopamine transporter function in DLBD than in DAT.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0991
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. An intracellular glucoamylase (E.C. 3.2.1.3) was purified to homogeneity from Lactobacillus amylovorus on a Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography System (FPLC) with a Mono Q ion-exchanger and two Superose 12 gel filtration columns arranged in series. The enzyme activity was quantified with a specific, chromogenic substrate, p-nitrophenyl-β-maltoside. Preparative gel electrophoresis was then used to further purify active enzyme fractions. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified enzyme showed a single protein band of molecular weight 47 kDa. Glucoamylase activity of the purified protein was confirmed by its ability to degrade starch on a 0.025% starch-polyacrylamide gel stained with I2/KI. Glucoamylase exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 6.0 and 45°C, and the enzyme had an isoelectric point near 4.39. The glucoamylase contained high levels of hydrophilic amino acids, comparable to fungal glucoamylases.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Continuous cultivation of both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodiumfalciparum was achieved using a mixture of commercially available serum substitutes. This provides easier standardisation of experimental data and minimises the risk of infection from handling of human serum. In addition, Nutridoma SR and AlbuMAXI are readily available and are biologically defined. Parasites grown in serum-free medium are morphologically and metabolically identical to those cultivated in medium supplemented with 10% human serum.
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  • 6
  • 7
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Keywords: Pressure sores ; Sacrum ; Ischium ; Femoral trochanter ; Myocutaneous flap ; Dekubitalulzera ; Sakral ; Ischial ; Trochanter ; Myokutane Lappen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Infizierte Dekubitalgeschwüre der Hüft- und Beckenregion der Stadien IV–VII nach Campbell erfordern eine Weichteilrekonstruktion, die sowohl eine stabile Abdeckung und Defektauffüllung als auch eine zuverlässige Rezidivprophylaxe darstellt. Muskellappen erfüllen diese Bedingungen in hervorragender Weise. Je nach Ausmaß und Lokalisation des Ulkus mit Prädilektion der Kreuz-, Steiß-, Sitzbein- und Trochanterregion finden bevorzugt der Gluteus-maximus-, der Biceps-femoris- und der Tensor-fasciae-lata-Hautmuskellappen Anwendung. Im Gegensatz dazu reichen primäre Wundverschlüsse, Spalthauttransplantate oder lokale fasziokutane Lappenplastiken für kleinere, oberflächigere Defekte aus. Zwischen 1981 und 1996 behandelten wir 133 Patienten im mittleren Alter von 50 Jahren mit 212 pelvinen Dekubitalulzera aller Stadien. Nach radikalem Debridement analog der Pseudotumortechnik und Abtragung knöcherner Prominenzen erfolgte in 135 Fällen die meist einzeitige Rekonstruktion der uni- und multilokulären Defekte mittels vorrangig der oben erwähnten myokutanen Lappen. Die postoperative allgemeine Komplikationsrate betrug, gemessen an allen durchgeführten Behandlungen, etwa 10–30% unter Beachtung der Mehrfachbenennung. Hinsichtlich der Muskellappenplastiken heilte 1/3 völlig problemlos ein, Lappenteilnekrosen traten in 6%, ein vollständiger Verlust in 2% aller Lappen auf. Somit stellen nach gegenwärtigem Kenntnisstand die myokutanen Lappenplastiken die verläßlichste Definitivversorgung tiefer Dekubitalulzera der Becken- und Hüftregion dar, und zwar unabhängig von der Ulkusgenese.
    Notes: Abstract Infected pelvic pressure sores of Campbell stages IV–VII require soft tissue reconstruction, which means stable, multi-layered filling cover of the defect and reliable prophylaxis of relapse. Myocutaneous flaps meet these conditions well. Depending on the extent and the area of the sore, with predilection for the sacrum, the ischial tuberosity and the femoral trochanter, the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris and tensor fasciae latae muscles are most often used for myocutaneous flaps. Primary sutures, split skin grafts or local fasciocutaneous flaps are often sufficient treatment for smaller, superficial defects. Between 1981 and 1996, 133 patients (average age 50 years) with 212 pelvic pressure sores of all stages were treated in our clinic. After radical decubitus excision with pseudotumor technique and resection of the osseous prominences, one-stage reconstruction of solitary as well as multiple defects was performed with myocutaneous flaps in 135 cases. The postoperative general complication rate for all treatments was about 10–30%. With regard to the muscle flaps, one third healed without any problems, partial flap necrosis occurred in 6% and there was total loss of flap in 2% of all myocutaneous flaps. According to present knowledge, myocutaneous flaps seem to be the most reliable method for definitive covering of deep pelvic pressure sores, independent of the cause of the ulcer.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1436-5073
    Keywords: alumina scales ; spallation ; stress measurement ; X-ray diffraction ; Raman spectroscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of silicon and titanium on the spallation resistance of alumina scales grown on NiCrAlY-type alloys has been investigated. For this purpose cyclic oxidation experiments on model alloys with different additions of silicon or titanium were carried out at temperatures between 950 and 1100 °C. Selected samples were analysed by X-ray stress evaluation (XSE) after various times of oxidation. It was found that the compressive stresses measured at ambient temperature increase with increasing time and are affected by the presence of silicon. The XSE results were used to calibrate laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) for strain measurement. Then, the suitability of Raman spectroscopy for stress measurement at higher temperatures was evaluated.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-0130
    Keywords: Mentosternal contractures ; Surgical reconstruction ; Conventional and microsurgical methods
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mentosternal contractures still represent a surgical challenge due to their prominent position. They require early operative treatment for both function and aesthetic reasons. Careful clinical examination of scar position and traction forces, both at rest and when functioning, in addition to proper evaluation of the surrounding soft tissue are mandatory for precise preoperative planning of the required reconstruction. In general, the technically most feasible operation is favored if the functional and aesthetic results are good and postoperative risk for recurrence is low. Between 1987 and 1994, 21 patients with cervical, mentosternal, and mentothoracic contractures were operated upon. Eight patients were reconstructed with local flaps and 13 with microvascular free flaps.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-1803
    Keywords: Key words Sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers – action potentials – automaticity –β1-adrenoceptors –β2-adrenoceptors – (–)-isoproterenol – (–)-noradrenaline – procaterol – bisoprolol – ICI 118,551
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The electrophysiological effects mediated by β1- and β2-adrenoceptors in spontaneously active sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers were investigated using the non-selective agonist (–)-isoproterenol (IPN) and the selective agonists (–)-noradrenaline (β1) and procaterol (β2) in the absence and presence of the selective antagonists bisoprolol (β1) and ICI 118,551 (β2). IPN (0.01 μmol/l) increased the spontaneous rate by 54% and the slope of diastolic depolarization by 68% of the respective control values. Further, IPN increased the action potential duration at –20 mV (APD –20 mV) from 96 to 154 ms, reduced the APD –70 mV by 17% and the duration of the diastole by 39% and slightly hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. These effects were partially inhibited ICI 118,551 (0.03 μmol/l), diminished by bisoprolol (0.1 μmol/l) and almost completely blocked by the combination of both antagonists. Concentration response curves of IPN were influenced by the selective antagonists as follows: ICI 118,551 (0.03 μmol/l) shifted the curves to the right by 0.2–0.4 log units and increased the slope factor. Bisoprolol (0.1 μmol/l) induced a greater shift to the right by 1.1–1.5 log units. Combination of bisoprolol with ICI 118,551 shifted the curves to the right by 1.5–1.7 log units. Noradrenaline (0.3 μmol/l) elicited similar actions as IPN. Bisoprolol (0.1 μmol/l) shifted the concentration response curves of noradrenaline to the right by 1.1–1.9 log units. Actions of procaterol (0.1 μmol/l) were weak, attained only 15–35% of the maximal effects of IPN and could be blocked by ICI 118,551 (0.03 μmol/l). These results show that the increase of pacemaker activity induced by catecholamines in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers is predominantly mediated by stimulation of β1-receptors. However, contribution of β2-receptor mediated effects could be demonstrated.
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