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  • Articles  (53)
  • 1995-1999  (53)
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  • Articles  (53)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP) are a highly conserved family of proteins consisting of several subtypes, among them the mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI) which is quite homologous to or even identical with the heart-type FABP (H-FABP). The FABPs and MDGI have been suggested to be involved in intracellular fatty acid metabolism and trafficking. Recently, evidence for growth and differentiation regulating properties of MDGI and H-FABP was provided. Using four affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against bovine and human antigen preparations, the cellular localization of MDGI/H-FABP in human and mouse tissues and organs was studied. The antibodies were weakly cross-reactive with adipose tissue extracts known to lack H-FABP, but failed to react by Western blot analysis with liver-type FABP (L-FABP) and intestinal-type FABP (I-FABP). MDGI/H-FABP protein was mainly detected in myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle fibres, lipid and/or steroid synthesising cells (adrenals, Leydig cells, sebaceous glands, lactating mammary gland) and terminally differentiated epithelia of the respiratory, intestinal and urogenital tracts. The results provide evidence that expression of H-FABP is associated with an irreversibly postmitotic and terminally differentiated status of cells. Since all the antisera employed showed spatially identical and qualitatively equal immunostaining, it is suggested that human, bovine and mouse MDGI/H-FABP proteins share highly homologous epitopes.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Der Nervenarzt 68 (1997), S. 21-37 
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Neuronale Netzwerke ; Neuroinformatik ; Psychopathologie ; Linguistik ; Entwicklungspsychologie ; Denkstörungen ; Wahn ; Key words Neural network ; Neuroinformation ; Psychopathology ; Thought disorder ; Delusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Within the past 10 years, computer simulations of neural networks have yielded new insights into the nature of information-processing neural systems. Since 1987, more and more network models relevant to psychiatry have been published, and such models have meanwhile been proposed for almost every psychopathological phenomenon. This paper provides an introduction to the theory of neural networks and gives examples of discoveries made via computer simulations. Network models of psychopathological phenomena are discussed with respect to formal thought disorder and delusions. The relevance of neural network models for psychopathological research and theory formulation is highlighted and it is argued that neural network modeling in psychopathology does not merely introduce a few mathematical gimmicks, but rather represents the beginning of a new basis for psychopathology.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Computersimulationen des Verhaltens neuronaler Netzwerke haben im vergangenen Jahrzehnt wesentliche Erkenntnisse zu Systemeigenschaften informationsverarbeitender neuronaler Verbände geliefert. Psychiatrisch relevante Modelle wurden seit 1987 in zunehmendem Maß publiziert und betreffen mittlerweile nahezu das gesamte Spektrum psychopathologischer Sachverhalte. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt zunächst eine Einführung in die Theorie neuronaler Netzwerke, woran sich die Erörterung einiger wichtiger, durch Computersimulationen gewonnener Entdeckungen von Prinzipien neuronaler Informationsverarbeitung anschließt. Netzwerkmodelle psychopathologischer Sachverhalte werden am Beispiel von formalen Denkstörungen und Wahn diskutiert, wonach abschließend auf die Relevanz der Ergebnisse für die allgemeine Psychopathologie insgesamt eingegangen wird. Es wird argumentiert, daß es sich bei psychopathologischen Modellen, die sich auf neuronale Netzwerke berufen, nicht um kurzlebige Erscheinungen handelt, die die bestehende Psychopathologie noch um einige mathematische Kuriositäten bereichern, sondern um den Beginn einer neuen Grundlegung der allgemeinen Psychopathologie.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Ereigniskorrelierte Potentiale ; N400 ; Schizophrenie ; Semantische Bahnung ; Key words Event-related potentials ; Lexical access ; N400 ; Schizophrenia ; Semantic priming
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Event-related potentials (ERPs) can be used for high-resolution mental chronometry. For about 15 years, this method has been applied to the study of linguistic phenomena. Semantic incongruency produces a negative component at about 400 ms after stimulus onset, the N400. We measured the N400 component in 20 schizophrenic patients and 20 normal control subjects performing a lexical decision task in which semantic distance between prime and target was varied. The results provide evidence of dysfunctional semantic information processing in schizophrenic patients, and reaction time data from previous studies can be interpreted within an electrophysiological framework. The N400 amplitude and latency data support recent spreading activation models of schizophrenic language dysfunction.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Ereigniskorrelierte Potentiale (EKP) erlauben die zeitlich hochauflösende Darstellung mentaler Informationsverarbeitungsprozesse. Die Methode wird seit ca. 15 Jahren zur Untersuchung psycholinguistischer Sachverhalte verwendet. Semantische Inkongruenz führt ca. 400 ms nach Stimulusbeginn zu einem negativen Potential (N400). Die Vermessung dieses Potentials bei gleichzeitiger Variation der semantischen Distanz von Hinweisreiz und Zielreiz in einer Wortentscheidungsaufgabe bei 20 gesunden Probanden und 20 schizophrenen Patienten verweist auf eine gestörte Gestaltbildung im Bereich semantischer Verarbeitungsprozesse bei schizophrenen Patienten. Ergebnisse aus früheren Untersuchungen zu Bahnungseffekten bei Reaktionszeitmessungen werden elektrophysiologisch untermauert, die Hypothese einer rascheren und vermehrten Aktivierungsausbreitung in semantischen Netzwerken bei schizophrenen Patienten wird insgesamt bestätigt.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Metachromatische Leukodystrophie (MLD) ; Organische Psychose ; Demyelinisierung ; Key words Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) ; Organic psychosis ; Demyelinization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A case of late onset metachromatic leukodystrophy with a clinical picture of paranoid hallucinatory psychosis and severe dyskinesia is described. The problem of diagnostic recognition is discussed. In the case, diagnostic procedures were initiated after atypical clinical course, and established on the basis of MRI and specific biochemical tests.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Anhand des Fallberichts einer adulten metachromatischen Leukodystrophie (MLD) mit schizophrener Symptomatik und schweren Dyskinesien werden die diagnostischen Schwierigkeiten der Früherkennung dieses seltenen Krankheitsbildes diskutiert. Im vorliegenden Fall wurde erst nach langjährigem Verlauf durch MRT und durch systematische klinisch-biochemische Untersuchungen die dem psychiatrischen Krankheitsbild zugrundeliegende Hirnerkrankung entdeckt.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Intestinale Invagination ; Hydrostatische Reposition ; Ultraschallsteuerung ; Erfolgsrate ; Key words Intestinal intussusception ; Hydrostatic reduction ; Ultrasound guidance ; Rate of success
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Objective: We wanted to find out, if ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction of intussusception, as develloped by YG Kim, and other methods of intussuseption reduction are comparable. Method: We, therefore, studied all intussusceptions, diagnosed between 1989 and 1999 at children’s hospital of the TU München and compared our results with the most important reports until 1998. Results: 9 of 158 patients with intussusception (age 2–130 months) had to be operated upon without any prior conservative trial, 10 intussusceptions dissolved spontaneously. 87,1% of 139 procedures were successful; taking into account only ileocolic intussusceptions, more than 95,1% were successful. Only a few complications were recorded. Rate of recurrence 9,5% (rate of success: 79% in recurrent intussusception), perforation 0,7%, letality 0%. These results are identical to previously published studies of ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction. Conclusions: We recommend this procedure, because ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction is more successful, has less risks and offers more advantages than other procedures, e.g. avoidance of x-ray exposure and recognition of impaired circulation.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Die ultraschallgesteuerte hydrostatische Reposition einer intestinalen Invagination ermöglicht im Unterschied zu anderen Therapiekonzepten eine Reposition ohne Strahlenbelastung. Gezeigt werden sollte, daß dieses Verfahren gleichwertige Erfolge bietet. Methode: Alle Invaginationen, diagnostiziert an der Kinderklinik der TU München von 1989–1999, wurden retrospektiv analysiert und durch Zusammenstellung der wichtigsten Veröffentlichungen die verschiedenen Therapiekonzepte verglichen. Ergebnisse: Von 158 Invaginationen (Alter der Patienten: 2–130 Monate) lösten sich 10 spontan, 9 mußten primär operiert werden. 87,1% aller Repositionsversuche führten zum Erfolg, bei Berücksichtigung nur der ileokolischen Invaginationen sogar 95,1%. Die Erfolgsrate betrug bei Rezidivinvaginationen 79% bei einer Häufigkeit von 9,5%. Komplikationen traten selten auf: Letalität 0%, Perforationsrate 0,7%. Diese Resultate entsprechen den Ergebnissen der ultraschallgesteuerten hydrostatischen Reposition in der Literatur. Schlußfolgerung: Die ultraschallkontrollierte hydrostatische Reposition bietet neben der höheren Erfolgsrate und der niedrigeren Rate an Komplikationen im Vergleich zu allen anderen Therapiekonzepten weitere Vorteile. Daher sollte dieses Verfahren bevorzugt werden, zumal mit der Farbdopplersonografie eine neue Möglichkeit der nichtinvasiven Durchblutungskontrolle als prognostischer Parameter besteht.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-0474
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Kind ; Schwimmbad ; Sprungunfall ; Unfallverhütung ; Wasserrutsche ; Key words Accident ; Child ; Prevention ; Swimming pool ; Water slide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Objective: It is the aim of this study to examine causes and modes of swimming bath accidents involving children and adolescents in order to establish strategies for accident prevention. Method: In a retrospective study we identified all children ≤=16 years who were admitted at the Department of Paediatric Surgery for treatment of swimming bath injuries between January 1990 and December 1997. Charts were analyzed for gender, age and type of injury. Questionnaires were sent to the parents of these children asking for the circumstances and mode of accident and for sequels of the injury. Results: Overall 452 children were treated in the A & E department for swimming bath injuries, 199 girls (44%) and 253 boys (56%). The average age of patients was 10 years (1–16 years). In 5 children the main injury was a fracture of the skull (1.1%), a fracture of the spine/sternum in 2 (0.5%), a concussion of the brain in 44 (9.7%), a fracture of a limb in 74 (16.4%), and a tooth luxation/fracture in 5 (1.1%). Further 27.4% of children had sustained contusions, 21.7% skin wounds, 9.3% sprains and 11.7% miscellaneous injuries. Analysis of 127 questionnaires demonstrated that the majority of children were injured in water-slide accidents (18.1%), followed by children injured when jumping off the edge of the pool (14.9%), and children who fell when running on slippery ground (14.2%). Conclusion: Accurate supervision is mandatory for children using water-slides. A continuous water current at the diving-in area of water-slides could lower the rate of collision accidents. Children should be warned by pictograms, swimming instructors and parents not to jump off the edge of the swimming-pool into shallow pools or turbid water. To prevent fall accidents caused by slippery ground we recommend a no slip surface on povings and steps of ladders.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Fragestellung: Welche Ursachen und Unfallmechanismen führen zum Auftritt von Schwimmbadverletzungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter, und lassen sich Unfallpräventionsstrategien ableiten? Methode: In einer retrospektiven Studie wurden alle Kinder im Alter bis zu 16 Jahren erfaßt, die zwischen Januar 1990 und Dezember 1997 an der Universitätsklinik für Kinderchirurgie Graz wegen einer Schwimmbadverletzung behandelt wurden. Analysiert wurden das Alter zum Unfallzeitpunkt und die Art der Verletzungen. An die Familien dieser Kinder wurden Fragebögen mit Fragen zu Unfallort, -zeit, -hergang und -folgen versandt. Ergebnisse: 452 Kinder wurden in die Studie einbezogen, 199 Mädchen (44%) und 253 Knaben (56%). Das mittlere Alter der Kinder lag bei 10 Jahren (1–16 Jahre). 5 Kinder (1,1%) hatten Schädelfrakturen, 2 Kinder Wirbel- bzw. Sternumfrakturen (0,5%), 44 Gehirnerschütterungen (9,7%), 74 Extremitätenfrakturen (16,4%), 5 Zahnluxationen bzw. -frakturen (1,1%) und 5 Rißquetschwunden im Genitalbereich (1,1%) erlitten, während die übrigen Kinder v.a. Kontusionen (27,4%), Hautwunden (21,7%), Distorsionen (9,3%) und sonstige Verletzungen (11,7%) davontrugen. Die Analyse der 127 auswertbaren Fragebögen ergab, daß sich die Unfälle v.a. bei Wasserrutschenbenutzung (18,1%), (Kopf-)Sprüngen vom Beckenrand (14,9%) oder beim Laufen in der Schwimmbeckenumgebung (14,2%) ereignet hatten. 6 Kinder (4,7%) leiden an Spätfolgen des Unfalls [rezidivierende Kopfschmerzen (2), Gesichtsnarben (2), Verlust eines Zahns (1), knöcherne Schiefnase (1)] Schlußfolgerung: Zur Reduktion der häufigen Wasserrutschenunfälle sind eine ständige Aufsicht und die Einhaltung der gültigen Sicherheitsnormen unabdingbar. Unterwasserstömungen im Eintauchbereich am Wasserrutschenende können die Kollisionsgefahr reduzieren. Warnpiktogramme, Wassertiefenangaben und vermehrte Aufklärung im Schwimmunterricht könnten mithelfen, (Kopf-)Sprünge vom Beckenrand des Nichtschwimmerbereichs oder in seichte Badeseen zu verhindern. Griffigere Bodenbeläge und Auftrittsflächen sowie abgerundete Kanten in der Umgebung des Schwimmbeckens würden das Risiko des Ausrutschens senken.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-2478
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A highly resistive phonolitic body near Sainerholz / Westerwald in Germany has been investigated for geological mapping using vertical electrical soundings in a Schlumberger configuration. Because of its explicitly three-dimensional shape, conventional 1D and 2D interpretation techniques are not applicable. Therefore, a new 3D finite-difference forward modelling algorithm has been applied to acquire information about its subsurface structure and to explain the observed data. This investigation focuses on two exposed soundings: one located near the centre of the body and the other close to its rim. For the interpretation, data from electromagnetic measurements on the lateral extension of the body are additionally taken into account as well as geological a priori information. A possible 3D conductivity model is presented and evidence for its validity is discussed using model studies and sensitivity analyses. The latter are carried out using a newly developed 3D FD sensitivity modelling code with which the total subsurface response can be decomposed. This permits the determination of the resolution of model parameters, indicating the contribution of different parts of the model to the overall response. The results emphasize the feasibility of 3D forward modelling in practice.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  This paper presents a detailed clinical description of phantom limbs and a neuronal network model that provides a comprehensive and parsimonious explanation of otherwise inexplicable or at least unrelated phenomena. Simulations of self-organizing feature maps (Kohonen networks) that had been trained to recognize input patterns were deprived of parts of their input in order to simulate partial deafferentation. This leads to reorganization processes that are shown to be driven by input noise. In patients with an amputated limb, this noise is generated by dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons which are known to fire irregularly upon laceration. According to this model, the long-standing debate concerning non-cortical vs. cortical contributions to the generation of the phenomenon of phantom limbs can be resolved in that it is the peripherally generated noise that causes cortical reorganization. The model can be tested and may have therapeutic implications.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  The different cortical visual cells exhibit a large repertoire of responses to sinusoidal gratings, depending on their receptive field structure and the stimulation parameters. It has been shown previously that the tuning curves and histogram shapes of cell responses are affected by subunit distances. One receptive field model (Spitzer and Hochstein 1985b) incorporated subunit distance but assigned it as a constant parameter, for ease of calculation. Here we investigate different tuning curve properties of various primary cortical cell types during testing of 10 deg of nonuniform distances of the receptive fields’ subunits. The effect of nonuniformity was compared for average responses, tuning curve shapes, maximum peak responses, and bandwidths across four cell types of different sizes. The shapes and other properties of tuning curves are usually found to be retained also when the degree of uniformity is not very high for most of the cell types. In addition, the effect of uniformity is compared across these different response properties. The maximum peak responses of the tuning curve are found to display a lower coefficient of variation than the bandwidth, for all cell types, for most degrees of uniformity.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents a detailed clinical description of phantom limbs and a neuronal network model that provides a comprehensive and parsimonious explanation of otherwise inexplicable or at least unrelated phenomena. Simulations of self-organizing feature maps (Kohonen networks) that had been trained to recognize input patterns were deprived of parts of their input in order to simulate partial deafferentation. This leads to reorganization processes that are shown to be driven by input noise. In patients with an amputated limb, this noise is generated by dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons which are known to fire irregularly upon laceration. According to this model, the long-standing debate concerning non-cortical vs. cortical contributions to the generation of the phenomenon of phantom limbs can be resolved in that it is the peripherally generated noise that causes cortical reorganization. The model can be tested and may have therapeutic implications.
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