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  • 1
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fed-batch cultures were performed to maximize the α-amylase activity in a bioreactor. Kinetic equations containing a catabolite repression effect were used to model the enzyme formation from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Fed-batch culture experiments were performed using maltose to implement the optimal feeding strategy. Optimal fed-batch culture based on sequential parameter estimation was performed successfully using off-line analysis while the fermentation was in progress. The enzyme activity from the fed-batch culture employing maltose was higher than that of the batch culture by 60%. Enzyme production using starch showed similar trends to those obtained using maltose.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Two types of semiflexible mesogenic random copolyesters which contained both nematic and smectic type repeating units within the main chain were prepared and the thermal properties as well as the mesomorphic structures were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and by polarizing microscope. The first type of copolymer (copolymer I) contained two repeating units which differed in the rigid mesogenic groups and the second (copolymer II) contained repeating units which differed in the length of flexible segment. Copolymerization disrupted the structural regularity of the crystal, lowered the crystal-mesophase transition temperature, and destabilized the molecular order of the smectic phase. These effects were more pronounced for copolymer II. However, the isotropization temperature was changed only slightly with the incorporation of the other mesogenic component. The crystal melting temperatures of both copolymers exhibited a eutectic behavior. A smectic to nematic transition, which was not observed for the homopolymers, occurred in the range of 0.4-0.6 mole fractions of the smectic units for copolymer I and 0.5-0.85 for copolymer II. The molecular order of the nematic phase was slightly increased as the smectic units were incorporated, while those of the smectic phase became more disordered upon addition of the nematic units.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The microbial production of α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was investigated. The microorganism was grown using media containing glucose or maltose at 37°C and under aerobic conditions in a 16-L fermentor. The α-amylase synthesis from maltose was not found to be inducible but was found to be subject to catabolite repression. The maltose uptake rate was observed to be the rate-limiting step compared to the conversion rate of maltose to glucose by intracellular α-glucosidase. The α-amylase activity achieved with maltose as a substrate was higher than that achieved with glucose. A slower growth rate and a higher cell density were obtained with maltose. The enzyme production pattern depended upon the nutrient composition of the medium.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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