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  • Articles  (40)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (40)
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  • Articles  (40)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-04
    Description: In developing tissues, cells estimate their spatial position by sensing graded concentrations of diffusible signaling proteins called morphogens. Morphogen-sensing pathways exhibit diverse molecular architectures, whose roles in controlling patterning dynamics and precision have been unclear. In this work, combining cell-based in vitro gradient reconstitution, genetic rewiring, and mathematical modeling, we systematically analyzed the distinctive architectural features of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway. We found that the combination of double-negative regulatory logic and negative feedback through the PTCH receptor accelerates gradient formation and improves robustness to variation in the morphogen production rate compared with alternative designs. The ability to isolate morphogen patterning from concurrent developmental processes and to compare the patterning behaviors of alternative, rewired pathway architectures offers a powerful way to understand and engineer multicellular patterning.
    Keywords: Development, Engineering
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-04-12
    Description: Observations with the Venus Express magnetometer and low-energy particle detector revealed magnetic field and plasma behavior in the near-Venus wake that is symptomatic of magnetic reconnection, a process that occurs in Earth's magnetotail but is not expected in the magnetotail of a nonmagnetized planet such as Venus. On 15 May 2006, the plasma flow in this region was toward the planet, and the magnetic field component transverse to the flow was reversed. Magnetic reconnection is a plasma process that changes the topology of the magnetic field and results in energy exchange between the magnetic field and the plasma. Thus, the energetics of the Venus magnetotail resembles that of the terrestrial tail, where energy is stored and later released from the magnetic field to the plasma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, T L -- Lu, Q M -- Baumjohann, W -- Russell, C T -- Fedorov, A -- Barabash, S -- Coates, A J -- Du, A M -- Cao, J B -- Nakamura, R -- Teh, W L -- Wang, R S -- Dou, X K -- Wang, S -- Glassmeier, K H -- Auster, H U -- Balikhin, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 May 4;336(6081):567-70. doi: 10.1126/science.1217013. Epub 2012 Apr 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China. tielong.zhang@oeaw.ac.at〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22491094" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-11-05
    Description: The mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase is a master growth regulator that is stimulated by amino acids. Amino acids activate the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases), which promote the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface, the site of mTORC1 activation. We found that the vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase ATPase (v-ATPase) is necessary for amino acids to activate mTORC1. The v-ATPase engages in extensive amino acid-sensitive interactions with the Ragulator, a scaffolding complex that anchors the Rag GTPases to the lysosome. In a cell-free system, ATP hydrolysis by the v-ATPase was necessary for amino acids to regulate the v-ATPase-Ragulator interaction and promote mTORC1 translocation. Results obtained in vitro and in human cells suggest that amino acid signaling begins within the lysosomal lumen. These results identify the v-ATPase as a component of the mTOR pathway and delineate a lysosome-associated machinery for amino acid sensing.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3211112/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3211112/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zoncu, Roberto -- Bar-Peled, Liron -- Efeyan, Alejo -- Wang, Shuyu -- Sancak, Yasemin -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-07/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866-08/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389-11/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389-12/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389-13/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 4;334(6056):678-83. doi: 10.1126/science.1207056.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Nine Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22053050" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Drosophila ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism ; Humans ; Lysosomes/*metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes ; Proteins/*metabolism ; RNA Interference ; Signal Transduction ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases ; Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-13
    Description: We report classes of electronic systems that achieve thicknesses, effective elastic moduli, bending stiffnesses, and areal mass densities matched to the epidermis. Unlike traditional wafer-based technologies, laminating such devices onto the skin leads to conformal contact and adequate adhesion based on van der Waals interactions alone, in a manner that is mechanically invisible to the user. We describe systems incorporating electrophysiological, temperature, and strain sensors, as well as transistors, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, radio frequency inductors, capacitors, oscillators, and rectifying diodes. Solar cells and wireless coils provide options for power supply. We used this type of technology to measure electrical activity produced by the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles and show that the resulting data contain sufficient information for an unusual type of computer game controller.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Dae-Hyeong -- Lu, Nanshu -- Ma, Rui -- Kim, Yun-Soung -- Kim, Rak-Hwan -- Wang, Shuodao -- Wu, Jian -- Won, Sang Min -- Tao, Hu -- Islam, Ahmad -- Yu, Ki Jun -- Kim, Tae-il -- Chowdhury, Raeed -- Ying, Ming -- Xu, Lizhi -- Li, Ming -- Chung, Hyun-Joong -- Keum, Hohyun -- McCormick, Martin -- Liu, Ping -- Zhang, Yong-Wei -- Omenetto, Fiorenzo G -- Huang, Yonggang -- Coleman, Todd -- Rogers, John A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Aug 12;333(6044):838-43. doi: 10.1126/science.1206157.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21836009" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adhesiveness ; Dermis ; Elastic Modulus ; Elastomers ; Electric Power Supplies ; Electrocardiography/instrumentation/methods ; Electrodes ; Electrodiagnosis/*instrumentation/*methods ; Electroencephalography/instrumentation/methods ; Electromyography/instrumentation/methods ; *Epidermis ; Humans ; Mechanical Phenomena ; Monitoring, Physiologic/*instrumentation/*methods ; Nanostructures ; *Semiconductors
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-06-30
    Description: Ricklefs and Renner (Reports, 27 January 2012, p. 464) found significant correlations for abundances and species diversities of families and orders of trees on different continents, which they suggested falsifies the neutral theory of biodiversity (NTB). We argue that the correlations among families and orders and the lack of correlations among genera can be explained by the NTB.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Anping -- Wang, Shaopeng -- Pacala, Stephen W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Jun 29;336(6089):1639; author reply 1639. doi: 10.1126/science.1222534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. anpingc@princeton.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22745403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biodiversity ; *Biological Evolution ; *Ecosystem ; *Trees
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-03-16
    Description: Recent discoveries of large leg feathers in some theropods have implications for our understanding of the evolution of integumentary features on the avialan leg, and particularly of their relevance for the origin of avialan flight. Here we report 11 basal avialan specimens that will greatly improve our knowledge of leg integumentary features among early birds. In particular, they provide solid evidence for the existence of enlarged leg feathers on a variety of basal birds, suggest that extensively scaled feet might have appeared secondarily at an early stage in ornithuromorph evolution, and demonstrate a distal-to-proximal reduction pattern for leg feathers in avialan evolution.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zheng, Xiaoting -- Zhou, Zhonghe -- Wang, Xiaoli -- Zhang, Fucheng -- Zhang, Xiaomei -- Wang, Yan -- Wei, Guangjin -- Wang, Shuo -- Xu, Xing -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Mar 15;339(6125):1309-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1228753.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Linyi University, Linyi City, Shandong, China. ty4291666@163.com〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23493711" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Birds/*anatomy & histology ; Feathers/*anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Hindlimb/*anatomy & histology ; Wings, Animal/*anatomy & histology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-05-17
    Description: Cellular membranes act as signaling platforms and control solute transport. Membrane receptors, transporters, and enzymes communicate with intracellular processes through protein-protein interactions. Using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen that covers a test-space of 6.4 x 10(6) pairs, we identified 12,102 membrane/signaling protein interactions from Arabidopsis. Besides confirmation of expected interactions such as heterotrimeric G protein subunit interactions and aquaporin oligomerization, 〉99% of the interactions were previously unknown. Interactions were confirmed at a rate of 32% in orthogonal in planta split-green flourescent protein interaction assays, which was statistically indistinguishable from the confirmation rate for known interactions collected from literature (38%). Regulatory associations in membrane protein trafficking, turnover, and phosphorylation include regulation of potassium channel activity through abscisic acid signaling, transporter activity by a WNK kinase, and a brassinolide receptor kinase by trafficking-related proteins. These examples underscore the utility of the membrane/signaling protein interaction network for gene discovery and hypothesis generation in plants and other organisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jones, Alexander M -- Xuan, Yuanhu -- Xu, Meng -- Wang, Rui-Sheng -- Ho, Cheng-Hsun -- Lalonde, Sylvie -- You, Chang Hun -- Sardi, Maria I -- Parsa, Saman A -- Smith-Valle, Erika -- Su, Tianying -- Frazer, Keith A -- Pilot, Guillaume -- Pratelli, Rejane -- Grossmann, Guido -- Acharya, Biswa R -- Hu, Heng-Cheng -- Engineer, Cawas -- Villiers, Florent -- Ju, Chuanli -- Takeda, Kouji -- Su, Zhao -- Dong, Qunfeng -- Assmann, Sarah M -- Chen, Jin -- Kwak, June M -- Schroeder, Julian I -- Albert, Reka -- Rhee, Seung Y -- Frommer, Wolf B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 16;344(6185):711-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1251358.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, CA 94305, USA. Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic University and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Cell and Developmental Biology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA. ; Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, CA 94305, USA. Michigan State University-U.S. Department of Energy (MSU-DOE) Plant Research Laboratory and Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. Center for Plant Aging Research, Institute for Basic Science, Department of New Biology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873, Republic of Korea. ; Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Institution for Science, CA 94305, USA. wfrommer@stanford.edu srhee@carnegiescience.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24833385" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Arabidopsis/genetics/*metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/*metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Protein Interaction Maps ; Signal Transduction ; Two-Hybrid System Techniques
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shang, Yi -- Ma, Yongshuo -- Zhou, Yuan -- Zhang, Huimin -- Duan, Lixin -- Chen, Huiming -- Zeng, Jianguo -- Zhou, Qian -- Wang, Shenhao -- Gu, Wenjia -- Liu, Min -- Ren, Jinwei -- Gu, Xingfang -- Zhang, Shengping -- Wang, Ye -- Yasukawa, Ken -- Bouwmeester, Harro J -- Qi, Xiaoquan -- Zhang, Zhonghua -- Lucas, William J -- Huang, Sanwen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 28;346(6213):1084-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1259215.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. Agricultural Genomic Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518124, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. Horticulture and Landscape College, Hunan Agricultural University, National Chinese Medicinal Herbs Technology Center, Changsha 410128, China. ; Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China. ; Hunan Vegetable Research Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China. ; Horticulture and Landscape College, Hunan Agricultural University, National Chinese Medicinal Herbs Technology Center, Changsha 410128, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. ; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. ; School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308, Japan. ; Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6700, Netherlands. ; Department of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. Agricultural Genomic Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518124, China. huangsanwen@caas.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430763" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Cucumis sativus/genetics/*metabolism ; Fruit/genetics/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genome, Plant ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Plant Leaves/genetics/*metabolism ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Taste ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Triterpenes/chemical synthesis/*metabolism
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Shuo -- Shi, Chao -- Zhang, Yun-jiao -- Hu, Guo-xiong -- Gao, Li-zhi -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 26;351(6276):926. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6276.926-a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China. Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China. ; Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Kunming Medical University Haiyuan College, Kunming 650031, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China. ; Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China. Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China. lgao@mail.kib.ac.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917758" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental physical process in plasmas whereby stored magnetic energy is converted into heat and kinetic energy of charged particles. Reconnection occurs in many astrophysical plasma environments and in laboratory plasmas. Using very high time resolution measurements, NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) has found direct evidence for electron demagnetization and acceleration at sites along the sunward boundary of Earth's magnetosphere where the interplanetary magnetic field reconnects with the terrestrial magnetic field. We have (i) observed the conversion of magnetic energy to particle energy, (ii) measured the electric field and current, which together cause the dissipation of magnetic energy, and (iii) identified the electron population that carries the current as a result of demagnetization and acceleration within the reconnection diffusion/dissipation region.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Burch, J L -- Torbert, R B -- Phan, T D -- Chen, L-J -- Moore, T E -- Ergun, R E -- Eastwood, J P -- Gershman, D J -- Cassak, P A -- Argall, M R -- Wang, S -- Hesse, M -- Pollock, C J -- Giles, B L -- Nakamura, R -- Mauk, B H -- Fuselier, S A -- Russell, C T -- Strangeway, R J -- Drake, J F -- Shay, M A -- Khotyaintsev, Yu V -- Lindqvist, P-A -- Marklund, G -- Wilder, F D -- Young, D T -- Torkar, K -- Goldstein, J -- Dorelli, J C -- Avanov, L A -- Oka, M -- Baker, D N -- Jaynes, A N -- Goodrich, K A -- Cohen, I J -- Turner, D L -- Fennell, J F -- Blake, J B -- Clemmons, J -- Goldman, M -- Newman, D -- Petrinec, S M -- Trattner, K J -- Lavraud, B -- Reiff, P H -- Baumjohann, W -- Magnes, W -- Steller, M -- Lewis, W -- Saito, Y -- Coffey, V -- Chandler, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 May 12. pii: aaf2939.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA. jburch@swri.edu. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA. University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. ; University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. ; University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA. ; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA. ; University of Colorado LASP, Boulder, CO, USA. ; Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, UK. ; West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA. ; University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. ; Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria. ; Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA. ; University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. ; University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA. ; Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden. ; Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. ; Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA, USA. ; University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA. ; Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA, USA. ; Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, Toulouse, France. ; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA. ; Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences, Sagamihara, Japan. ; NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27174677" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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