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  • Articles  (8)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (8)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A gram scale enzymatic synthesis of eight, dinucleoside monophosphates (ApC, ApU, CpC, CpU, GpC, GpU, UpC, and UpU) is described. The synthesis involves a reaction between the appropriate ribonucleoside-2′,3′-cyclie phosphates and cytidine or uridine in the presence of ribonuelease from Aspergillus clavatus at 30°C. The enzyme is removed from the reaction mixture by chromatography on Bio-Gel P-4, and the dinucleoside monophosphate is further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-Sephadex A-25, column.A procedure for the large scale preparation of the ribonuclease from Aspergillus clavatus is also described.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 18 (1976), S. 839-846 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An efficient method to grow Escherichia coli W to high cell concentrations on the pilot scale is described and discussed. The method involves growth linked introduction of glucose; and ammonia to the culture, sparing with oxygen, and maintenance of aerobic conditions by gradually decreasing the temperature in the culture in order to keep the oxygen demand within the limits of the capacity of supply. Under these conditions the linear rate of cell mass production is actually the result of exponential growth with a gradually decreasing growth-rate constant.About 10 kg packed cells were produced in a 50 liter working-volume fermentor in one run of 13 hr. The concentration of the cells at the end of the growth was about 47 g dry cells/liter. The expenditure for nutrients was minimal and the controls were of simple automatic nature. From the determined yield constants for glucose, nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen it may be inferred that the cells grown by this method are similar to those grown exponentially at constant temperature.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A substrain of Bacillus cereus 569/H produced under controlled fermentation conditions in a pilot plant fermentor phospholipase-C. A partially purified preparation showed good storage stability as a lyophylized powder and in frozen solutions. The preparation contained very small amounts of phosphomonoesterase and proteolytic activities and essentially no ribonuclease activity. The level of hemolytic activity of the preparation was much lower than that of a commercial preparation of phospholipase-C from Clostridium. Treatment of sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane with phospholipase-C from B. cereus and from Clostridium showed that the B. cereus enzyme caused hydrolysis of 96% of the membrane phospholipids whereas the enzyme from Clostridium could hydrolyze only 80% of the phospholipids.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A procedure for the preparation of about 50 g batches of tRNA from 25 kg E. coli W is described. The method involves phenolic extraction of the cells, batch absorption of the tRNA on DEAE-cellulose, washing the DEAE-cellulose and packing it into a column, elution of the tRNA from the column and precipitation of the tRNA with ethanol. The method is less time and labor consuming than the methods described in the literature and can be carried out with relatively simple equipment.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 16 (1974), S. 933-941 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Oxygen supply is one of the main factors which influences aerobic cell growth in a fermentor. Maximal rates at which E. coli can grow on glucose as carbon source under various limiting oxygen-supply conditions were determined in a bench-scale fermentor. Culture conditions are described which gave yields of about 38 g dry cells per liter medium.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 17 (1975), S. 227-239 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: E. coli wax grown exponentially at different temperatures in a bench scale fermentor. pH was maintained at 6.8 by ammonia which served also as the nitrogen source. Glucose was introduced semi-continuously at a predetermined rate which ensured a glucose concentration of 25-50 g/liter during growth. The culture was sparged with pure oxygen.Yield constants for glucose, nitrogen, phosphorus, and oxygen were determined at the different temperatures of propagation.When all growth conditions, except temperature, were kept constant, the maximal possible yield of exponentially grown cell mass was found to be directly proportional to the doubling time. Concentrations of up to 55 g dry cells/liter culture were achieved.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 18 (1976), S. 81-94 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Escherichia coli B, Escherichia coli MRE 600, Escherichia coli K 12-3300, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aerobacter aerogenes were grown exponentially in a bench-scale fermentor to cell concentrations in the range of 20 to 41 g dry cells/liter at 30°C and 30 to 55 g dry cells/liter at 25°C. The high cell concentrations were achieved in a growth system previously described for growth of Escherichia coli W (Biotechnol. Bioeng., 16, 933 (1974); ibid. 17, 227 (1975)). Various enzyme activity levels in the high-concentration cells were compared to those in cells grown in conventional low-density cultures. No significant differences were found. The culture supernatants were found to be essentially free of high-molecular weight metabolic or cell lysis products. Yield constants for glucose, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus were also determined in the dense cultures and some of their relations to the growth conditions are discussed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The growth of E. coli W in a bench scale fermentor to high cell concentration is described. The method involves growth-linked introduction of ammonia to the culture, sparging the culture with oxygen, and maintenance of aerobic conditions during the final growth phase by gradually and automatically decreasing the concentration of the carbon source, sucrose, in the culture. Thus, the oxygen demand is kept within the limits of the supply capacity, and a linear growth rate during the final phase of growth is obtained. A concentration of 42 g dry cell per liter was obtained. The yield constants for nitrogen and phosphorous were determined and were compared with those obtained using the temperature variation method.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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