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  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: DNA sequences covering 57% of atpD encoding the β subunit of ATP synthase were determined for 16 strains of Salmonella enterica, two strains of S. bongori, and one strain each of Citrobacter freundii and Yersinia enterocolitica, and comparison was made with the published Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes sequences. The phylogenetic tree based on maximum-likelihood analysis showed separation of the subspecies of S. enterica except for two serotypes of subspecies II which were unsupported by a common node. The two serotypes of S. bongori were separated from S. enterica and related to the serotypes of subspecies II. A tight relationship was found between S. enterica subspecies IIIa consisting of monophasic serotypes and subspecies IIIb consisting of diphasic serotypes. This is in conflict with results obtained for most other housekeeping genes and the 23S rRNA gene separating mono- from diphasic subspecies.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 102 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Flow-cytometry was used to measure cell volumes and DNA contents of single cells in cultures of soil bacteria during exponential growth and starvation conditions. DNA was measured after staining with mitramycin/ethidium bromide. The measurement of DNA was calibrated with rifampicin-treated cells of E. coli containing even numbers of genomes per cell. Cell volumes were assessed by scatter light measurements. Constant DNA to biovolume relations over a range of cell sizes were found for each of the bacteria at exponential growth, and DNA contents per cell varied over a range equivalent to 1–4 genomes per cell. At generation times of 1.0–1.5 h, two genomes were registered as a mean. After starvation of washed cells in a salt solution (24 hrs), a fraction of the cells in each culture had DNA contents equivalent to 1 genome, but significant fractions retained DNA contents equivalent to 2–4 genomes. Attempts to create cells with even numbers of genomes per cell by treatment with rifampicin was successful on an Acinetobacter sp. In contrast, the response to rifampicin was less clear for Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. chlororaphis, and unclear for the gram positive bacteria isolated from soil. The mean decrease in biovolume upon starvation was 4.1 times (range 1.3–8.1 times) and larger than the mean decrease in DNA content of 1.8 (range 1.3–2.7 times). Cell volume determinations by measurements of scatter light was compared with volume determinations by fluorescence microscopy. The amounts of scatter light per volumes was variable, not only did we find large differences between bacterial types, but also between starving and exponentially growing cells of the same isolate. In order to use light scatter as a measure of biovolume, internal standards has to be chosen of comparable size and surface properties as to soil bacteria.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-7527
    Keywords: active vision ; autonomous robots ; agent architecture ; visual routines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper, we present a system called the Active Vision Shell (AV-shell) which provides a programming framework for expressing and implementing autonomous robotic tasks using perception and action where perception is provided by active vision. The AV-shell is a system with a powerful interactive C-shell style interface providing many important capabilities including: (1) architectural support; (2) an abstract interface enabling interaction with a wide variety of devices; (3) a rich set of visual routines; and (4) a process composition framework. The utility of the AV-shell is demonstrated in several examples showing the relevance of the AV-shell to meaningful applications in autonomous robotics.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Ce travail étudie les effects d'un traitement avec 2 mg d'hormone de croissance humaine bio-synthétique (b-hGH)/kg/jour commencé avant l'intervention sur la résistance à la rupture et le dépot de collagène des anastomoses coliques gauches expérimentales et du colon intact chez des rats opérés fictivement. La pression de rupture anastomotique était 55% plus élevée chez les animaux traités par b-hGH au deuxième jour (p〈0.05) et 79% plus élevée au jour 4 (NS, p=0.056), et la tension de rupture pariétale était 65% plus élevée au jour 2 (p〈0.05) et 112% plus élevée au quatrième jour post-opératoire (p〈0.05) que chez les contrôles. Le contenu en hydroxyproline du segment anastomotique chez les animaux traités augmentait de 56% au 4ème jour (p〈0.005) et de 30% au sixième jour post-opératoire (p〈0.05), comparé avec les contrôles. A trois centimètres en amont des anastomoses les faits démontraient que le poid sec dégressé et le contenu en hydroxyproline des colons cicatrisés était accru après le sixi⪻me jour en comparaison avec les rats opérés fictivement. Il n'y avait cependant aucune diffécence entre les rats traités et les contrôles appareillés indiquant que l'hormone de croissance n'est pas intéressée par ce processus.
    Notes: Abstract This study examined the effects of preoperative treatment with 2.0 mg biosynthetic human growth hormone (b-hGH)/kg/day on the bursting strength and collagen deposition of experimental left colonic anastomoses, and of intact colon from sham-operated rats. The anastomtic bursting pressure was 55% higher in the b-hGH treated animals on day 2 (p〈0.05) and 79% higher on day 4 (NS; p=0.056), and the bursting wall tension was 65% higher on day 2 (p〈0.05) and 112% higher on day 4 postoperatively (p〈0.05), than saline-injected controls. The hydroxyproline content of the anastomotic segment in the b-hGH treated rats increased by 56% on day 4 (p〈0.005) and by 30% on day 6 postoperatively (p〈0.05), compared with controls. At 3 cm proximal to the anastomoses the defatted dry weight and hydroxyproline content of the healing colons were increased after 6 days compared with the sham-operated rats. There was, however, no difference between the b-hGH treated rats and the paired controls, indicating that growth hormone is not involved in this process.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1405
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract When visual behaviors are combined to provide a specific functionality needed for a task, the combination is often based on heuristic rules. In this article we show that by adopting the Discrete-Event Systems (DES) formalism for describing the interaction between visual behaviors it is possible to provide systems that have well-defined properties in terms of observability and controllability. The method is in particular suited for describing the coupling between action and perception. An introduction to the use of DES is provided and it is demonstrated how DES are used for modeling behaviors and controlling a mobile robot equipped with a binocular camera head and some additional sensors.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Erythropoietin ; Carbon dioxide ; Haemoglobin oxygen affinity ; Human ; Hypoxia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract This study investigated the human erythropoietin (EPO) response to short-term hypocapnic hypoxia, its relationship to a normoxic or hypoxic increase of the haemoglobin oxygen affinity, and its suppression by the addition of CO2 to the hypoxic gas. On separate days, eight healthy male subjects were exposed to 2 h each of hypocapnic hypoxia, normocapnic hypoxia, hypocapnic normoxia, and normal breathing of room air (control experiment). During the control experiment, serum-EPO showed significant variations (ANOVAP = 0.047) with a 15% increase in mean values. The serum-EPO measured in the other experiments were corrected for these spontaneous variations in each individual. At 2 h after ending hypocapnic hypoxia (10% O2 in nitrogen), mean serum-EPO increased by 28% [baseline 8.00 (SEM 0.84) U · 1−1, post-hypoxia 10.24 (SEM 0.95) U · 1−1, P = 0.005]. Normocapnic hypoxia was produced by the addition of CO2 (10% Co2 with 10% O2) to the hypoxic gas mixture. This elicited an increased ventilation, unaltered arterial pH and haemoglobin oxygen affinity, a lower degree of hypoxia than during hypocapnic hypoxia, and no significant changes in serum-EPO (ANOVAP 〉 0.05). Hypocapnic normoxia, produced by hyperventilation of room air, elicited a normoxic increase in the haemoglobin oxygen affinity without changing serum-EPO. Among the measured blood gas and acid-base parameters, only the partial pressures of oxygen in arterial blood during hypocapnic hypoxia were related to the peak values of serum-EPO (r = −0.81,P = 0.01). The present human EPO responses to hypoxia were lower than those which have previously been reported in rodents and humans. In contrast with the earlier rodent studies, it was found that human EPO production could not be triggered by short-term increases in pH and haemoglobin oxygen affinity per se, and the human EPO response to hypoxia could be suppressed by concomitant normocapnia without acidosis.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-6327
    Keywords: Key words Erythropoietin ; Carbon dioxide ; Haemoglobin oxygen affinity ; Human ; Hypoxia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  This study investigated the human erythropoietin (EPO) response to short-term hypocapnic hypoxia, its relationship to a normoxic or hypoxic increase of the haemoglobin oxygen affinity, and its suppression by the addition of CO2 to the hypoxic gas. On separate days, eight healthy male subjects were exposed to 2 h each of hypocapnic hypoxia, normocapnic hypoxia, hypocapnic normoxia, and normal breathing of room air (control experiment). During the control experiment, serum-EPO showed significant variations (ANOVA P=0.047) with a 15% increase in mean values. The serum-EPO measured in the other experiments were corrected for these spontaneous variations in each individual. At 2 h after ending hypocapnic hypoxia (10% O2 in nitrogen), mean serum-EPO increased by 28% [baseline 8.00 (SEM 0.84) U⋅1-1, post-hypoxia 10.24 (SEM 0.95) U⋅1-1, P=0.005]. Normocapnic hypoxia was produced by the addition of CO2 (10% Co2 with 10% O2) to the hypoxic gas mixture. This elicited an increased ventilation, unaltered arterial pH and haemoglobin oxygen affinity, a lower degree of hypoxia than during hypocapnic hypoxia, and no significant changes in serum-EPO (ANOVA P〉0.05). Hypocapnic normoxia, produced by hyperventilation of room air, elicited a normoxic increase in the haemoglobin oxygen affinity without changing serum-EPO. Among the measured blood gas and acid-base parameters, only the partial pressures of oxygen in arterial blood during hypocapnic hypoxia were related to the peak values of serum-EPO (r=−0.81, P=0.01). The present human EPO responses to hypoxia were lower than those which have previously been reported in rodents and humans. In contrast with the earlier rodent studies, it was found that human EPO production could not be triggered by short-term increases in pH and haemoglobin oxygen affinity per se, and the human EPO response to hypoxia could be suppressed by concomitant normocapnia without acidosis.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Collagen ; Colon ; Growth hormone ; Healing ; Scanning electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PURPOSE: This experimental study was designed to investigate the collagen fibrils of colonic anastomoses in rats and to compare normal healing with rats treated with biosynthetic growth hormone (bGH). METHODS: The healing zone of left colonic anastomoses was studied at days 2, 4, and 6 after surgery by means of scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: After four days of healing a normal anastomosis was filled with loosely packed and unorganized collagen fibrils, which were organized into collagen fibers after six days. Compared with normal anastomoses, rats treated with bGH showed a more organized healing, characterized by a dense structure of a new-formed collagen framework of fibrils and immature collagen fibers after four days and with bundles of new collagen fibers after six days. CONCLUSIONS: Healing colonic anastomoses are characterized by new-formed collagen fibrils at postoperative day 4, and bGH seems to stimulate structural organization of the anastomotic collagen fibrils into fibers.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1769
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
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