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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based fingerprinting method for the characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates is described. The method uses three different PCRs; one is specific for the A (“Polish”) major group of G. duodenalis isolates, another is specific for the B (“Belgian”) group of isolates; and one amplifies a fragment of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene present in all G. duodenalis isolates. The PCRs perform highly sensitively on DNA from cultured trophozoites. Isolates were further characterized by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR products. In this way, representative isolates from the A and B groups could be grouped together into a number of subgroups. The stability of the genotypes with time and the reproducibility of the two methods were tested on cloned and subcloned lines from a number of isolates and proved to be highly satisfactory. The PCR/RFLP method was evaluated on cysts derived from a number of human patients. It is concluded that the PCR fingerprinting method described in this paper provides a reliable characterization method for Giardia isolates and has the potential to be used as a direct method of typing G. duodenalis cysts from feces.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0009-2940
    Keywords: Ring enlargement ; Carbonylation ; Enantioselective synthesis ; Iron complexes ; Bicyclo[3.2.1]octanes ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Carbonylating Ring Enlargement, 51). - Enantioselective Synthesis of the Bicyclo[3.2.l]oct-3-ene-2,8-dione Systems by Double Carbonylation of α-Terpinene and Other Prochiral CyclohexadienesThe steric information in tricarbonyl iron complexes of type 2(R1 ≠ R2), established during the complexation of prochiral 1,3-cyclohexadienes can be transferred to bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-ene-2,8-diones by metal-induced ring enlargement and bridging carbonylation. This was verified by the synthesis and conversion of optically active tricarbonyl iron complexes 2 of α-terpinene (1). These complexes can be either obtained by chirality transfer during complexation and rearrangement of (R)-(+)- or (S)-(-)-limonene (7) or by separation of racemic mixtures on triacetyl cellulose. The separation on chiral phases and subsequent stereoselective conversion to bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-ene-2,8-diones may also be carried out with other tricarbonyl iron complexes of prochiral cyclohexadienes (lacking additional functional groups).
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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