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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  4. Dreiländertagung D-A-CH, 35. Wissenschaftliche Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Phoniatrie und Pädaudiologie (DGPP); 20180920-20180923; Innsbruck, Österreich; DOCV38 /20180914/
    Publication Date: 2018-09-15
    Description: Hintergrund: Um die Eigenschaften des akustischen Signals und der Stimmlippenvibrationen während gehaltener Phonation zu bestimmen, wurden bereits viele Parameter vorgeschlagen. Einige dieser Parameter haben jedoch starke mathematische Abhängigkeiten zueinander und andere sind schlecht konzipiert. Der Zweck dieser Studie ist es, mathematische Abhängigkeiten zwischen diesen Parametern zu identifizieren, ihre Anzahl zu reduzieren und eine Empfehlung zu geben, welche dieser Parameter die Eigenschaften der glottalen Flächenfunktion (GAW) und des akustischen Signals am besten wiedergeben.Material und Methoden: In dieser Voruntersuchung werden 20 häufig verwendete Parameter behandelt: 10 Parameter, die ausschließlich für die GAW definiert sind, und 10 Parameter für GAW und akustische Signale. Alle Parameter wurden bezüglich ihres mathematischen Verhaltens und ihrer Abhängigkeiten zueinander auf Auffälligkeiten hin untersucht.Ergebnisse: Die Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass 13 Parameter aufgrund mathematischer Abhängigkeiten vernachlässigt werden können. Zusätzlich zeigen 9 dieser Parameter problematische Merkmale, die von unerwartetem Verhalten bis hin zu unzureichender Definition reichen.Diskussion: Welche der Parameter verworfen und welche beibehalten werden sollten, ist nicht immer unumstritten. Um unsere Vorschläge zu untermauern, wurden verschiedene Eigenschaften unterschiedlicher Parameter herausgearbeitet, wobei einige dieser Merkmale auf schwerwiegende Designprobleme hinweisen. Der klinischen Forschung müssen diese Mängel der Parameter bekannt sein, damit sichergestellt ist, dass diese Parameter zur Vorhersage von Behandlungseffekten verwendet werden können und von einer Aufnahme zur nächsten vergleichbar sind.Fazit: Ein kleiner Satz standardisierter Parameter stellt einen wichtigen Schritt für einen verbesserten Informationsaustausch in der Forschung dar und wird dazu beitragen die Aussagekraft der ausgewerteten Daten im klinischen Umfeld zu erhöhen. Die Redundanz bei anderen häufig verwendeten Parametern in Stimmforschung und klinischer Anwendung wird in zukünftigen Studien untersucht werden.
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: ceftizoxime ; cephalosporins ; renal excretion ; tubular reabsorption ; tubular secretion ; healthy volunteers ; biliary excretion ; clearance studies
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The kinetics of ceftizoxime, a newly developed cephalosporin, were evaluated in 6 healthy subjects, with respect to its excretory pathways especially by the biliary route. Total, renal and biliary clearance were determined at two different steady states. Steady state was achieved by constant intravenous infusion (604.1 mg/h) over 6 h after an initial loading dose (750 mg); 1.5 h after discontinuation of that infusion, a further infusion was commenced at a lower rate (284 mg/h) over 3 h, the second steady state being reached 0.5 to 1.0 h later. The drug was mainly excreted by the kidneys (56.7 to 92.9% of the dose). Biliary excretion, measured by the duodenal perfusion and marker dilution technique, was low (0.2 to 7.8% of the dose). Urinary and biliary excretion as well as total clearance were not dose-dependent. However, there was pronounced interindividual variation in total (35.2 to 236 ml/min) and renal clearance (10.6 to 208 ml/min), which could both be explained by varying interindividual urinary flow rates (mean flow rate: 0.99 ml/min to 3.14 ml/min). Intraindividual variation in renal clearance was less pronounced, but in the same subject changes in renal clearance were correlated with changes in urinary flow rate. From the varying renal clearance, which exceeded the glomerular filtration rate at high urinary flow rates and was below it at low urinary flow rates, it can be concluded that, in addition to glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption are involved in the renal excretion of ceftizoxime. The half-life calculated from two point estimates after discontinuation of the infusion at the higher rate tended to be longer in subjects with high total clearance (e. g. 1.4 h, clearance 223 ml/min) and shorter in subjects with low total clearance (e.g. 0.85 h, clearance 35.2 ml/min). From this it is concluded that the true half-life was not observed after discontinuation of the infusion.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Electric fish ; Electrolocation ; Single unit recording ; Mesencephalon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Extra- and intracellular recordings from single units in the magnocellular mesencephalic nucleus (MMN) of the torus semicircularis, related to the fast electrosensory system are reported for the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae). 2. The non-spontaneously active units responded with single action potentials to the electric organ discharge (EOD) and to artificial electrical pulses with a very short latency of 0.8–1.5 ms. This strongly suggests, in agreement with morphological data, that transmission takes place through electrical synapses. 3. The dynamic range (probability and latency of the single action potential) of the response is extremely narrow and about the same as found in the relevant electrosensory fibres. Intracellular stimulation gives the same response characteristics and dynamic range. 4. The recovery of the response was studied in detail using different stimulus combinations of double pulses at varying delays. Under all conditions, the recovery period to evoke a test response after a conditioning stimulus and response increased in length with the strength of the conditioning stimulus. Inversely, the conditioning stimulus to prevent the unit from firing again had to be stronger as the delay between the two stimuli was increased. 5. Since there is no evidence of neural inhibition causing the long lasting and graded recovery characteristics for MMN units, an attempt was made to explain the findings by classical neurophysiological considerations adapted for electrical synaptic transmission (“current sink” theory). 6. This neural mechanism means that, if at all, the relatively weaker stimulus is not responded to, which protects the fish from being jammed by external pulses of physiological amplitude. In contrast, very strong foreign pulses can completely abolish responses to own EODs especially when timed appropriately. Both effects are discussed in view of their significance for the fish's electrosensory system and communication.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0584
    Keywords: Key words Hepatic veno-occlusive disease ; VOD ; Treatment ; Pediatric ; Duplex ultrasound ; Prostaglandin E1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Limited data exist on therapeutic options for established hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) in pediatric patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT). In this report, we present data on the successful treatment of VOD in three children following allogeneic SCT and report the duplex ultrasound criteria for the confirmation of the diagnosis and for the evaluation of the treatment progress. All patients were 〈2 years at the time of transplantation and had received preparative regimens containing busulfan and cyclophosphamide. There were no known pretransplant risk factors for VOD. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed from a sibling donor for CMML and from unrelated donors for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). The onset of first clinical symptoms of VOD (as defined by the Seattle and Baltimore criteria) was relatively late in all three patients (days +19, + 20, and +25, respectively). Time from onset of first symptoms until confirmation of diagnosis by serial duplex ultrasound examination was 4–11 days. Duplex ultrasound criteria are as follows: complete change of direction of blood flow in the portal vein, decrease of flow in the hepatic veins, and development of collateral circulation. Treatment was initiated upon confirmation of VOD by continuous infusion of prostaglandin E1 (initial dose 0.075 μg/kg/h) in addition to low-dose heparin (100 units/kg/d). Treatment was continued at the maximum tolerated dose of 0.3–0.5 μg/kg/h of PGE1. After 9, 14, and 25 days of treatment respectively, normal portal vein flow was restored and treatment could be discontinued. All three patients are alive and well without apparent sequelae.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    World journal of urology 14 (1996), S. 274-277 
    ISSN: 1433-8726
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Spermatogenesis is an orderly process whereby male germ cells pass through sequential phases of differentiation to develop into mature spermatozoa. At present, little is known about the factors that regulate this process. The POU domain represents a group of transcription-activator proteins with well-described roles in development. These proteins have been shown to regulate the tissue-specific expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation. The recent identification of Sperm-1, a testis-specific POU-domain protein expressed in primary spermatocytes just prior to the onset of meiosis, suggests that this protein may be involved in the regulation of male germ-cell differentiation. Continued evaluation of Sperm-1 and other related transcriptional activators may shed some light on the regulation of spermatogenesis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Keywords: Hearing ; Chiroptera ; Desmodus Inferior colliculus ; Tonotopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Within the tonotopic organization of the inferior colliculus two frequency ranges are well represented: a frequency range within that of the echolocation signals from 50 to 100 kHz, and a frequency band below that of the echolocation sounds, from 10 to 35 kHz. The frequency range between these two bands, from about 40 to 50 kHz is distinctly underrepresented (Fig. 3B). 2. Units with BFs in the lower frequency range (10–25 kHz) were most sensitive with thresholds of -5 to -11 dB SPL, and units with BFs within the frequency range of the echolocation signals had minimal thresholds around 0 dB SPL (Fig. 1). 3. In the medial part of the rostral inferior colliculus units were encountered which preferentially or exclusively responded to noise stimuli. — Seven neurons were found which were only excited by human breathing noises and not by pure tones, frequency modulated signals or various noise bands. These neurons were considered as a subspeciality of the larger sample of noise-sensitive neurons. — The maximal auditory sensitivity in the frequency range below that of echolocation, and the conspicuous existence of noise and breathing-noise sensitive units in the inferior colliculus are discussed in context with the foraging behavior of vampire bats.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Recordings were made from single inferior colliculus neurons of two closely related bat species,Molossus ater andMolossus molossus, both emitting short CF-FM echolocation calls which differ only in frequency range. Employing pure tone stimuli, minimum thresholds, tuning curves, response patterns and spike count functions were measured and compared between the two species. 2. The audiograms (evoked potential measurements and distribution of single neuron thresholds) of both species are rather broadly tuned, but maximum auditory sensitivity is reached at different frequency ranges according to the different spectral content of the orientation calls. 3. Single unit data concerning tuning curves, Q10dB-values, response patterns and spike count functions are very similar in the samples obtained from the two molossid species and closely resemble data from bats using FM-orientation calls. 4. The inferior colliculus of molossids is tonotopically organized. Asymmetrical and symmetrical tuning curves were found. Q10dB-values rarely exceeded 20, and so are values known as characteristic for other mammals. The dominant response pattern class is the “phasic-on” type with no or low spontaneous activity. Spike count functions of the non-monotonic type prevail. 5. Data are compared with results from “long CF-FM-bats”, revealing striking species differences in frequency selectivity of single neurons and organization of the ascending auditory pathway. This suggests different strategies in information processing which are discussed as adaptations to the species specific orientation calls.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. The neural audiogram of the common long-eared bat,Plecotus auritus was recorded from the inferior colliculus (IC). The most sensitive best frequency (BF) thresholds for single neurones are below 0 dB SPL between 7–20 kHz, reaching a best value of -20 dB SPL between 12–20 kHz. The lower and upper limits of hearing occur at 3 kHz and 63 kHz, respectively, based on BF thresholds at 80 dB SPL. BF threshold sensitivities are about 10 dB SPL between 25–50 kHz, corresponding to the energy band of the sonar pulse (26–78 kHz). The tonotopic organization of the central nucleus of the IC (ICC) reveals that neurones with BFs below 20 kHz are disproportionately represented, occupying about 30% of ICC volume, occurring in the more rostral and lateral regions of the nucleus. 2. The acoustical gain of the external ear reaches a peak of about 20 dB between 8–20 kHz. The gain of the pinna increases rapidly above 4 kHz, to a peak of about 15 dB at 7–12 kHz. The pinna gain curve is similar to that of a simple, finite length acoustic horn; expected horn gain is calculated from the average dimensions of the pinna. 3. The directional properties of the external ear are based on sound diffraction by the pinna mouth, which, to a first approximation, is equivalent to an elliptical opening due to the elongated shape of the pinna. The spatial receptive field properties for IC neurones are related to the directional properties of the pinna. The position of the acoustic axis of the pinna and the best position (BP) of spatial receptive fields are both about 25° from the midline between 8–30 kHz but approach the midline to 8° at 45 kHz. In elevation, the acoustic axis and the BP of receptive fields move upwards by 20° between 9–25 kHz, remaining stationary for frequencies up to 60 kHz. 4. The extremely high auditory sensitivity shown by the audiogram and the directionality of hearing are discussed in terms of the adaptation of the auditory system to low frequencies and the role of a large pinna inP. auritus. The functional significance of low frequency hearing inP. auritus is discussed in relation to hunting for prey by listening and is compared to other gleaning species.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Recordings were made from single inferior colliculus neurons ofMolossus ater andMolossus molossus (Molossidae) to pure tone pulses and FM-pulses with different modulation heights, durations (20 ms, 2 ms) and directions (upward, downward sweeps). 2. Minimum thresholds to pure tone pulses at best frequency and FM-pulses centered at best frequency of equal duration were compared. Using stimuli of 20 ms duration, 58% of the neurons inM. ater (49% inM. molossus) had equal threshold values within ±5 dB, 28% inM. ater (37% inM. molossus) responded with more than 5 dB higher thresholds to FM-stimuli. With stimulus durations of 2 ms, the distribution changed: 27% of the neurons inM. ater (41% inM. molossus) responded 5 to 60 dB more sensitively to the FM-stimulus that mimics the FM-component of the orientation call, only 17% inM. ater (26% inM. molossus) responded more sensitively to pure tone stimuli. Comparison of thresholds to FM-stimuli of different sweep rates also revealed a population of neurons more sensitive to the fast sweep rate (22%M. ater, 29%M. molossus). 3. Specialized neurons were found that did not respond to a particular stimulus configuration (e.g. neurons not responding to upward sweeping FM-stimuli, neurons not responding to slowly sweeping FM-stimuli, etc.). 4. Response patterns of single neurons were found to depend on the frequency-time-course of the stimulus. Especially with slowly sweeping FM-signals, neuronal response activity (measured in number of spikes per stimulus) could be greater than to any other stimulus configuration employed. A stabilization of initial latency was frequently observed with fast sweeping FM-stimuli. 5. Threshold Signal/Noise-ratios were measured by masking the neuron's response to the signal (pure tone or FM) by bandpassed pseudorandom noise. The threshold Signal/Noise-ratios where either equal or lower for FM-stimuli than for pure tone stimuli of equal duration, i.e. more noise intensity is needed to mask the response to FM.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Konzentrationen von Ciprofloxacin im menschlichen Bauchspeicheldrüsengewebe und -saft zu ermitteln. Die von uns mittels Hochdruck-Flüssigkeitschromatographie (HPLC) ermittelte Konzentration betrug sowohl in menschlichem Pankreasgewebe wie auch im Pankreassaft im Median 0,9 mg/kg (mg/l) 140 min (Median) nach Beginn der intravenösen Kurzinfusion (30 min) von 200 mg Ciprofloxacin. Das Verhältnis der Gewebekonzentration zur zeitgleich vorhandenen Serumkonzentration betrug im Median für Pankreasgewebe 1,0 und für Pankreassaft 0,83. Im Vergleich mit den publizierten minimalen Hemmkonzentrationen für die relevanten Bakterien zeigt sich, daß Ciprofloxacin aufgrund seiner pharmakokinetischen Daten im Pankreas zur Behandlung septischer Komplikationen der akuten Pankreatitis geeignet erscheint. Allerdings sind weitere klinische Studien notwendig, um diese Vermutung zu beweisen.
    Notes: Summary The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of ciprofloxacin in human pancreatic tissue and juice. Concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two hundred mg of ciprofloxacin were administered as a short i. v. infusion (30 min). The median ciprofloxacin concentrations 140 min (median) after the start of infusion in pancreatic tissue as well as in pancreatic juice were 0.9 mg/kg (mg/l). The penetration ratio was 1.0 for pancreatic tissue and 0.83 for pancreatic juice. With regard to the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for the respective bacteria, ciprofloxacin seems to be an appropriate drug for the treatment of septic complications in necrotizing pancreatitis. Future clinical trials are necessary to prove this assumption.
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