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  • 1
    ISSN: 1471-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Objective  To investigate myo-inositol, glucose and zinc status in mothers and their infants on cleft lip with or without cleft palate risk (CLP).Design  Case–control study.Setting  University Medical Centre Nijmegen, the Netherlands.Population  Eighty-four mothers and their CLP child and 102 mothers and their healthy child.Methods  Venous blood samples were obtained to determine serum myo-inositol and glucose and red blood cell zinc concentrations in mothers and children. Geometric means were calculated and compared between the groups. The blood parameters were dichotomised with cutoff points based on control values, 〈P10 for myo-inositol and zinc concentrations and 〉P90 for glucose concentrations.Main outcome measures  Geometric means (P5–P95) and odds ratios (95% confidence intervals).Results  The CLP children (P= 0.003) and their mothers (P= 0.02) had significantly lower red blood cell zinc concentrations than controls. A low maternal serum myo-inositol concentration (〈13.5 μmol/L) and a low red blood cell zinc concentration (〈189 μmol/L) increased CLP risk [odds ratio 3.0 (95% CI 1.2–7.4) and 2.0 (95% CI 0.8–4.8), respectively]. Children with low myo-inositol (〈21.5 μmol/L ) or low red blood cell zinc concentrations (〈118 μmol/L) were more likely to have CLP [odds ratio 3.4 (95% CI 1.3–8.6) and 3.3 (95% CI 1.3–8.0), respectively]. Glucose was not a risk factor for CLP in mothers and children. Maternal and child myo-inositol as well as zinc concentrations were slightly, albeit significantly correlated, rPearson= 0.33 (P= 0.0006) and rPearson= 0.23 (P= 0.01), respectively.Conclusion  This study demonstrates for the first time that zinc and myo-inositol are important in the aetiology of CLP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The osteoconductive properties of porous titanium (Ti) fiber mesh with or without a calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coating and osteoinductive properties of non-coated Ti fiber mesh loaded with recombinant human Transforming Growth Factor beta-1 (rhTGF-β1) were investigated in a rabbit non-critical size cranial defect model. Nine Ca-P-coated and 18 non-coated porous titanium implants, half of them loaded with rhTGF-β1, were bilaterally placed in the cranium of 18 New Zealand White rabbits. At 8 weeks postoperative, the rabbits were sacrificed and the skulls with the implants were retrieved. Histological analysis demonstrated that in the TGF-β1-loaded implants, bone had been formed throughout the implant, up to its center, whereas in the non-loaded implants only partial ingrowth of bone was observed. Bone formation had a trabecular appearance together with bone marrow-like tissue. No difference in ingrowth could be observed between the non-TGF-β1-loaded non-coated implants and the Ca-P-coated ones. All histological findings were confirmed by image analysis: 97% ingrowth was seen in the rhTGF-β1-loaded implants, while only 57% and 54% ingrowth was observed in the non-loaded Ca-P-coated and non-coated implants, respectively. Bone surface area and bone fill were significantly higher in the rhTGF-β1-loaded implants (1.37 mm2 and 36%, respectively) than in the non-loaded implants (0.57 mm2 and 26%). No statistical difference was found for any parameter between the Ca-P-coated and non-coated implants. Quadruple fluorochrome labeling showed that in the Ti and Ti-CaP implants mainly bone guidance had occurred from the former defect edge, while in the Ti-TGF-β1 implants bone formation had mainly started in the center of a pore and proceeded in a centrifugal manner. Our results show that: (1) the combination of Ti-mesh with TGF-β1 can induce orthotopic bone formation; (2) Ti-fiber mesh has good osteoconductive properties; (3) a thin Ca-P coating, as applied in this study, does not seem to further enhance the bone-conducting properties of a titanium scaffold material.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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