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  • 1
    ISSN: 1469-7610
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Psychology
    Notes: Background: The abnormal gaze behavior of autistic children toward human faces, as observed in daily-life situations, are investigated in two fixation time studies. It has been argued that faces are a special kind of stimuli for normal individuals and that this might not be the case for autistic children. Methods: A group of high-functioning autistic children (including a group of sub-threshold PDD-NOS children) was compared with a group of normal children, with respect to their fixation behavior for photographs of human faces. Using an infrared eye-tracking device, fixation times for the whole face and for the facial elements of faces were compared between the two groups. The first study dealt with faces having an emotional expression. The second study dealt with neutral faces presented either upright or upside-down. Results: Results of the two studies showed that autistic children have the same fixation behavior as normal children for upright faces, with or without an emotional expression. Furthermore, results of the second study showed that normal children spent less time looking at upside-down faces, but that the fixation times of autistic children were not influenced by the orientation of the faces. Conclusions: These results plead against the notion that the abnormal gaze behavior in everyday life is due to the presence of facial stimuli per se. Furthermore, the absence of a face orientation effect in autistic children might be a reflection of a lack of holistic processing of human faces in autism.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0165-1781
    Keywords: Skin conductance response ; autism ; fixation time ; novelty
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-165X
    Keywords: Key words Eating disorders adolescents ; personality characteristics ; prediction ; outcome
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Results of studies on predictive factors in eating disorders have not been very clear until now. Attention has focused primarily on the predictive value of eating behaviour, duration of illness, comorbidity, and population characteristics for groups with mixed eating disorders, but lately several studies have concentrated on the influence of psychological and personality characteristics. In this 4-year prospective follow-up study of 49 eating-disordered adolescent patients, the predictive value of psychological factors and personality characteristics for the course of eating disorders is determined and discussed. The prognostic power of psychological variables measured by means of the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Dutch Personality Questionnaire is found to be stronger than that of behavioral factors and population characteristics and is different for anorectic and bulimic patients. For restricting anorectics, strong maturity fears predict poor outcome after four years, while for bulimic anorectics a longer duration of illness is related to poor prognosis. For patients with bulimic characteristics low self-esteem at admission is predictive of poor outcome.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-165X
    Keywords: Key words Classification – DSM – clinical statistics – health statistics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  DSM data are often used to build statistics on the types of patients to whom mental health services are offered. These statistics are normally based on broad categories that cluster finer subcategories for specific diagnoses. These broad categories can be built in a number of ways. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the choices made in forming broad DSM categories, by observing the resulting differences in clinical health statistics. Results based on 3496 clinical cases show that DSM-III-(R) classifications can be presented in different formats, leading to different outcomes. To avoid wrong conclusions based on one format, DSM statistics should always be presented in varying formats.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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