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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (9)
  • MICE  (9)
  • ddc: 610
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  • 1
    Keywords: CELL ; Germany ; APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; GROWTH ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; AP-1 ; ACTIVATION ; TIME ; MICE ; EFFICIENCY ; TOOL ; NEW-YORK ; INDUCTION ; T cells ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; T cell ; treatment ; SIGNAL ; c-Fos ; EAST ; c-Fos,apoptosis,early activation,induction,T cells ; GENOTYPES ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; STIMULI ; WILD-TYPE ; SIGNALING PATHWAYS
    Abstract: We used c-Fos-deficient activated T cells from the spleen and c-Fos-deficient thymocytes to address the capacity of these cells to undergo apoptosis in response to various stimuli. To determine the role of c-Fos in apoptosis regulation in thymocytes, we challenged thymocytes from wild-type and c-Fos-deficient mice with either TPA or the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. After various time points cells were stained according to the Nicoletti method and analyzed by FACS. Thymocytes from both genotypes exhibited similar efficiency of apoptosis in response to treatment with TPA or dexamethasone. Our data provide clear evidence that c-Fos is not required for apoptosis regulation in activated T cells as well as in thymocytes
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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  • 2
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; tumor ; IN-VIVO ; KINASE ; PATHWAYS ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; MICE ; CARCINOGENESIS ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; PROTEIN-KINASE ; MAP KINASE ; LESIONS ; resistance ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; NUMBER ; epidermis ; GROWTH ARREST ; signaling ; RE ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR ; TUMORIGENESIS ; SIZE ; ERK ; function ; INVASIVENESS
    Abstract: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) regulate cellular functions in response to a variety of external signals. However, the specific functions of individual ERK isoforms are largely unknown. Hence, we have investigated the specific function of ERK1 in skin homeostasis and tumorigenesis in ERK1 knockout mice. They spontaneously develop cutaneous lesions and hyperkeratosis with epidermis thickness. Skin hyperproliferation and inflammation induced by application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is strongly reduced in mutant mice. ERKI-/- mice are resistant to development of skin papillomas induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by TPA. Tumor appearance was delayed, their formation was less frequent, and their number and size were reduced. Keratinocytes obtained from knockout mice showed reduced growth and resistance to apoptotic signals, accompanied by an impaired expression of genes implicated in growth control and invasiveness. These results highlight the importance of ERK1 in skin homeostasis and in the process of skin tumor development
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16510590
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  • 3
    Keywords: MICE ; animals ; HUMANS ; PHENOTYPE ; HYPERPLASIA ; female ; Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/*genetics/metabolism ; Carcinogens/toxicity ; Cell Differentiation/physiology ; Cell Division/physiology ; Gene Expression/physiology ; Keratinocytes/pathology/physiology ; Lac Operon ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/physiology ; Regeneration/*physiology ; Skin/drug effects/*injuries/*pathology ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/toxicity ; Ubiquitin C/genetics ; Wound Healing/*physiology
    Abstract: Recently, we identified an AP-1-dependent target gene in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated mouse back skin, which encodes a retroviral-like aspartic proteinase (Taps/Asprv1). Taps expression was detected almost exclusively in stratified epithelia of mouse embryos and adult tissues, and enhanced protein levels were present in several non-neoplastic human skin disorders, implicating a crucial role for differentiation and homeostasis of multilayered epithelia. Here, we generated a mouse model in which Taps transgene expression is under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter (UBC-Taps). Although no obvious phenotype was observed in normal skin development and homeostasis, these mice showed a significant delay in cutaneous wound closure compared with control animals. Shortly after re-epithelialization, we found an increase in keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, which express Filaggrin, a late differentiation marker. A hypergranulosum-like phenotype with increased numbers of Filaggrin-positive keratinocytes was also observed in UBC-Taps mice after administration of TPA. In summary, these data show that aberrant Taps expression causes impaired skin regeneration and skin remodeling after cutaneous injury and chemically induced hyperplasia.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20237492
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; PROTEINS ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; murine ; RAGE ; ROLES ; PROMOTES
    Abstract: The S100A8/A9 heterodimer (calprotectin) acts as a danger signal when secreted into the extracellular space during inflammation and tissue damage. It promotes proinflammatory responses and drives tumor development in different models of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. S100A8/A9 is strongly expressed in several human tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apart from this evidence, the role of calprotectin in hepatocyte transformation and tumor microenvironment is still unknown. The aim of this study was to define the function of S100A8/A9 in inflammation-driven HCC. Mice lacking S100a9 were crossed with the Mdr2(-/-) model, a prototype of inflammation-induced HCC formation. S100a9(-/-) Mdr2(-/-) (dKO) mice displayed no significant differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity compared to Mdr2(-/-) animals. Chronic liver inflammation, fibrosis and oval cell activation were not affected upon S100a9 deletion. Our data demonstrate that, although highly upregulated, calprotectin is dispensable in the onset and development of HCC, and in the maintenance of liver inflammation. What's new? Liver cancers often overexpress a protein, S100A9, which functions as a danger signal during inflammation. It promotes inflammation and can drive the development of some tumors. In this paper, the authors sought to define the role of S100A9 in liver cancer. When they eliminated the protein from mice prone to inflammation-driven hepatocellular cancer, the liver tumors continued to develop unabated. Although it's highly upregulated in liver cancers, S100A9 isn't required for liver tumors to form, and wouldn't be useful as a therapeutic target.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25331529
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VITRO ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; TUMORS ; MICE ; PATIENT ; FAMILY ; AP-1 ; CARCINOGENESIS ; INDUCTION ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; BINDING ; fibroblasts ; MOUSE ; c-Fos ; PROMOTER ; MOUSE SKIN ; TRANSFORMATION ; BENIGN ; CARCINOMAS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; GLUCOCORTICOID-RECEPTOR ; SKIN-CANCER ; BINDING PROTEIN ; keratinocyte ; TRANSITION ; MALIGNANT PROGRESSION ; INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE ; CELL-CARCINOMA ; dexamethasone ; MOUSE KERATINOCYTES ; RECYCLING ENDOSOMES
    Abstract: Malignant transformation of mouse skin by tumor promoters and chemical carcinogens, such as the phorhol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), is a multistage process leading to the formation of squamous cell carcinomas. it has been shown that mice lacking the AP-1 family member c-Fos exhibit an impaired transition from benign to malignant skin tumors. Here, we demonstrate enhanced expression of the small Ras-related GTPase Rab11a after short-term TPA treatment of mouse back skin. Expression of Rab11a in vivo and in vitro critically depended on c-Fos, because TPA application to the back skin of c-Fos-deficient mice and to mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not induce Rab11a mRNA or protein expression. Moreover, dexamethasone, which is a potent inhibitor of AP-1-mediated transactivation that exhibits anti-inflammatory and antitumor promoting activities, inhibited TPA-induced expression of Rab11a. Within the Rab11a gene promoter, we identified a functional AP-1 binding element that exhibited elevated c-Fos binding activity after TPA treatment of keratinocytes. Enhanced expression was not restricted to chemically induced mouse skin tumors but was also found in tumor specimens derived from patients with epithelial skin tumors. These data identify Rab11a as a novel, tumor-associated c-Fos/AP-1 target and may point to an as yet unrecognized function of Rab11a in the development of skin cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15972968
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; KINASE ; MODEL ; VIVO ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; PROTEIN ; RNA ; METABOLISM ; cell line ; LINES ; MICE ; DNA ; CARCINOGENESIS ; animals ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; BIOLOGY ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CELL-LINES ; CYCLE ; DOWN-REGULATION ; MOUSE ; IDENTIFICATION ; IN-SITU ; PROGRESSION ; MALIGNANCIES ; gene expression ; EXPRESSION ANALYSIS ; HUMANS ; DESIGN ; UP-REGULATION ; MOUSE SKIN ; skin carcinogenesis ; genetics ; statistics ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; ONCOGENE ; INVOLVEMENT ; RT-PCR ; KINETICS ; cell lines ; heredity ; SKIN-CANCER ; HUMAN SKIN ; in situ hybridization ; MALIGNANCY ; ONCOLOGY ; ANNOTATION ; ENHANCED EXPRESSION ; cell adhesion ; LEVEL ; analysis ; CANCER DEVELOPMENT ; cluster analysis ; S100A8 ; MAP ; in vivo ; RELEVANCE ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; SPECIMENS ; animal ; Carcinoma,Squamous Cell ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; SET ; animal model ; molecular genetics ; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction ; Skin Neoplasms ; Cell Line,Tumor ; cytology ; DNA,Complementary ; epithelial skin cancer ; Gene Expression Regulation,Neoplastic ; HUMAN-SKIN ; Microscopy,Fluorescence ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases ; RNA,Messenger ; tumour specimen
    Abstract: Chemically induced mouse skin carcinogenesis represents the most extensively utilized animal model to unravel the multistage nature of tumour development and to design novel therapeutic concepts of human epithelial neoplasia. We combined this tumour model with comprehensive gene expression analysis and could identify a large set of novel tumour-associated genes that have not been associated with epithelial skin cancer development yet. Expression data of selected genes were confirmed by semiquantitative and quantitative RT-PCR as well as in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence analysis on mouse tumour sections. Enhanced expression of genes identified in our screen was also demonstrated in mouse keratinocyte cell lines that form tumours in vivo. Self-organizing map clustering was performed to identify different kinetics of gene expression and coregulation during skin cancer progression. Detailed analysis of differential expressed genes according to their functional annotation confirmed the involvement of several biological processes, such as regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, extracellular proteolysis and cell adhesion, during skin malignancy. Finally, we detected high transcript levels of ANXA1, LCN2 and S100A8 as well as reduced levels for NDR2 protein in human skin tumour specimens demonstrating that tumour-associated genes identified in the chemically induced tumour model might be of great relevance for the understanding of human epithelial malignancies as well
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16247483
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  • 7
    Keywords: brain ; CANCER ; CANCER CELLS ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; INVASION ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; human ; IN-VIVO ; MODEL ; VITRO ; VIVO ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; PROTEIN ; transcription ; cell line ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; LINES ; MICE ; PATIENT ; TISSUES ; KERATINOCYTES ; SKIN ; T cell ; T-CELL ; CELL-LINES ; SIGNAL ; MOUSE ; STAGE ; UP-REGULATION ; MEMBRANE ; skin carcinogenesis ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; ADHESION ; MIGRATION ; MORPHOLOGY ; INVOLVEMENT ; MOUSE MODEL ; TRANSLOCATION ; beta-catenin ; ECTODOMAIN ; cell lines ; SUBSTRATE-SPECIFICITY ; MATRIX ; E-cadherin ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; CAPACITY ; keratinocyte ; cell proliferation ; LEVEL ; NUCLEAR ; USA ; TISSUE INHIBITOR ; cancer research ; in vivo ; PLASMID ; DEFECT ; PROMOTES ; matrix metalloproteinase ; METALLOPROTEINASE ; ectodomain shedding ; MATRIX-METALLOPROTEINASE ; OVARIAN-CARCINOMA ; GROWTH-CONTROL ; EXTRACELLULAR CLEAVAGE ; HUMAN TISSUE KALLIKREINS ; PROTEINASE-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS ; SERINE PROTEINASE ; SERUM BIOMARKER
    Abstract: Recently, we described phorbol ester-induced expression of the brain and skin serine proteinase Bssp/kallikrein 6 (Klk6), the mouse orthologue of human KLK6, in mouse back skin and in advanced tumor stages of a well-established multistage tumor model. Here, we show KLK6 up-regulation in squamous skin tumors of human patients and in tumors of other epithelial tissues. Ectopic Klk6 expression in mouse keratinocyte cell lines induces a spindle-like morphology associated with accelerated proliferation, migration, and invasion capacity. We found reduced E-cadherin protein levels in the cell membrane and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in Klk6-expressing mouse keratinocytes and human HEK293 cells transfected with a KLK6 expression plasmid. Additionally, HEK293 cells exhibited induced T-cell factor-dependent transcription and impaired cell-cell adhesion in the presence of KLK6, which was accompanied by induced E-cadherin ectodomain shedding. Interestingly, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-l and TIMP-3 interfere with KLK6-induced F-cadherin ectodomain shedding and rescue the cell-cell adhesion defect in vitro, suggesting the involvement of matrix metalloproteinase and/or a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteolytic activity. In line with this assumption, we found increased levels of the mature 62-kDa ADAM10 proteinase in cells expressing ectopic KLK6 compared with mock controls. Finally, enhanced epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and migration in concert with decreased E-cadherin protein levels are confirmed in an in vivo Klk6 transgenic mouse model
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17804733
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  • 8
    Keywords: CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; IN-VITRO ; proliferation ; CELL ; Germany ; VITRO ; transcription ; TISSUE ; LINES ; MICE ; FAMILY ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ; AP-1 ; TISSUES ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; MEMBER ; SIGNAL ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; TRANSGENIC MICE ; c-Fos ; NUMBER ; transgenic ; LINE ; MUTANT MICE ; ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR-2 ; AP-1,bone,chondrocytes,cell cycle,osteoblasts,osteoporosis ; BONE-FORMATION ; EMBRYONIC LETHALITY ; GROWTH-PLATE CHONDROCYTES ; HERITABLE DISEASES ; LINEAGE DETERMINATION ; MOLECULAR INSIGHTS ; NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE ; OSTEOBLAST-LIKE CELLS ; OSTEOPOROSIS ; REGULATOR ; REGULATORS ; SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT
    Abstract: Functional analysis in mice has established an absolute requirement of JunB, a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family, during early embryonic development. To investigate the role of JunB during mid and late gestation and postnatally Ubi-junB transgenic mice were used to generate two junB(-/-) Ubi-junB mutant lines, in which embryonic lethality was rescued but strongly reduced JunB; expression in several adult tissues was observed. Mutant mice from both rescue lines were growth retarded and shared significantly reduced longitudinal bone growth. Mutant long bones were characterised by reduced numbers of growth plate chondrocytes and a severe osteoporosis. Decreased JunB levels in epiphysal growth plate chondrocytes and bone lining osteoblasts correlated with deregulated expression of Cyclin A, Cyclin D1 and p16(INK4a), key regulators of cell cycle control. Furthermore, junB(-/-) Ubi-junB bone marrow stromal cells were unable to differentiate into bone forming osteoblasts in vitro. Our data demonstrate that JunB plays a crucial role in endochondral ossification by regulating proliferation and function of chondrocytes and osteoblasts
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14576352
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  • 9
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; tumor ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; SUPPORT ; NEW-YORK ; TISSUE ; MICE ; LIGAND ; MECHANISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; KERATINOCYTES ; mechanisms ; SKIN ; BONE-MARROW ; PROGRESSION ; MOUSE SKIN ; skin carcinogenesis ; LIGANDS ; FACTOR-KAPPA-B ; GLYCATION END-PRODUCTS ; inflammation ; signaling ; molecular ; RE ; CANCER DEVELOPMENT ; PHASE ; USA ; BONE ; immunology ; PROMOTES ; MEDICINE ; DOUBLE-EDGED-SWORD
    Abstract: A broad range of experimental and clinical evidence has highlighted the central role of chronic inflammation in promoting tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms converting a transient inflammatory tissue reaction into a tumor-promoting micro-environment remain largely elusive. We show that mice deficient for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) are resistant to DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis and exhibit a severe defect in sustaining inflammation during the promotion phase. Accordingly, RAGE is required for TPA-induced up-regulation of proinflammatory mediators, maintenance of immune cell infiltration, and epidermal hyperplasia. RAGE-dependent up-regulation of its potential ligands S100a8 and S100a9 supports the existence of an S100/RAGE-driven feed-forward loop in chronic inflammation and tumor promotion. Finally, bone marrow chimera experiments revealed that RAGE expression on immune cells, but not keratinocytes or endothelial cells, is essential for TPA-induced dermal infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia. We show that RAGE signaling drives the strength and maintenance of an inflammatory reaction during tumor promotion and provide direct genetic evidence for a novel role for RAGE in linking chronic inflammation and cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18208974
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