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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (61)
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  • Articles  (78)
  • DKFZ Publication Database  (61)
  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; LUNG ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; METABOLISM ; TISSUE ; PATIENT ; RISK-FACTORS ; FREQUENCY ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; PROMOTER ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; WOMEN ; MEN ; risk factors ; smoking ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; RISK FACTOR ; CYP3A4 ; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; CARCINOMAS ; POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION ; adenocarcinoma ; ADENOCARCINOMAS ; CARRIERS ; case-control studies ; CLINICAL PRESENTATION ; CYP3A,genetic polymorphism,lung cancer susceptibility,small cell lung cancer,LightCycler ; EXPRESSED HUMAN CYTOCHROME-P450S ; GENETIC VARIANT ; HUMAN LIVER-MICROSOMES ; PROSTATE TUMORS ; PROTEIN LEVELS ; squamous cell carcinoma ; TOBACCO
    Abstract: CYP3A isozymes are involved in tobacco carcinogen- and steroid-metabolism, and are expressed in human lung tissue showing interindividual variation in expression and activity. The CYP3A4* 1 B allele has been associated with a two-fold higher promoter activity and with high-grade prostate cancers. The very frequent intron 3 polymorphism in the CYP3A5 gene (CYP3A5*3) results in decreased CYP3A5 protein levels. A case-control study was conducted in 801 Caucasian lung cancer patients that included 330 adenocarcinomas, 260 squamous cell carcinomas, 171 small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and 432 Caucasian hospital-based controls. CYP3A-genotyping was performed by capillary polymerase chain reaction followed by fluorescence-based melting curve analysis. A significantly increased SCLC risk for CYP3A4* 1B allele carriers [odds ratio (OR) 2.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-4.55, P = 0.02] was found. After dividing cases and controls by gender, an increased lung cancer risk for CYP3A4* 1B carriers (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.94-9.90, P= 0.06) for women but not for men (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.56-1.81) was revealed. Heavier smoking men (greater than or equal to 20 pack-years) with the CYP3A4* 1 B allele had a significant OR for lung cancer of 3.42 (95% CI 1.65-7.14, P= 0.001) compared to * 1A/1* 1A carriers with lower tobacco exposure (〈 20 pack-years). For women, the respective OR was 8.00 (95% CI 2.12-30.30, P = 0.005). Genotype frequencies were generally in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except for CYP3A5 where a greater than expected number of CYP3A5* 1 homozygotes was observed among cases (P = 0.006). In addition, we observed linkage disequilibrium of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 (P 〈 0.00001), but a nonsignificantly increased lung cancer risk was only found for homozygous CYP3A5* 1 allele carriers (OR 5.24,95% CI 0.85-102.28, P = 0.14) but not for heterozygotes. To confirm our observation that the CYP3A4* 1B allele increases SCLC risk and modifies the smoking-related lung cancer risk in a gender-specific manner, further studies, including CYP3A haplotype analysis, will be necessary. Pharmacogenetics 13:607-618 (C) 2003 Lippincott Williams Wilkins
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14515059
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; LUNG ; COMMON ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; EXPOSURE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; HYBRIDIZATION ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; primary ; RISK-FACTORS ; mechanisms ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; NO ; AMPLIFICATION ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; REPAIR ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; risk factors ; smoking ; PCR ; cancer risk ; DAMAGE ; RISK FACTOR ; REGION ; CARCINOGENS ; adenocarcinoma ; case-control studies ; squamous cell carcinoma ; INDIVIDUALS ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; SMOKERS ; NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION-REPAIR ; CELL CARCINOMA ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; OCCUPATIONAL-EXPOSURE ; CARCINOGEN ; HEAVY ; LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA ; PIGMENTOSUM GROUP-A
    Abstract: Polymorphisms of genes coding for DNA repair can affect lung cancer risk. A common single nucleotide (-4) G-to-A polymorphism was identified previously in the 5' untranslated region of the XPA gene. In a case-control study in European Caucasians, the influence of this polymorphism on primary lung cancer risk overall and according to histologic subtypes was investigated. Four hundred sixty-three lung cancer cases (including 204 adenocarcinoma and 212 squamous cell carcinoma) and 460 tumor-free hospital controls were investigated using PCR amplification and melting point analysis of sequence-specific hybridization probes. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, smoking habits, and occupational exposure and showed a slightly enhanced risk for all lung cancer cases as well as for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cases. Gene-environment interactions were analyzed with respect to smoking and occupational exposure. A nearly 3-fold increased risk for adenocarcinoma associated with the XPA AA genotype was observed for occupationally exposed individuals (OR, 2.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-6.14) and for heavy smokers (OR, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.42). No genotype-dependent increase in OR was found for nonexposed individuals or those smoking 〈20 pack-years. The significant effect of the XPA polymorphism in heavy smokers and occupationally exposed individuals suggests an important gene-environment interaction for the XPA gene. The underlying mechanisms as to why AA homozygotes are predisposed to lung adenocarcinoma and which specific carcinogens are involved remains to be determined
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15598786
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  • 3
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; carcinoma ; Germany ; LUNG ; THERAPY ; TOOL ; TIME ; resistance ; INITIATION ; pancreas ; RE ; pancreatic ; rectum ; viability ; MOLECULAR ANALYSIS ; tumour specimen ; surgical resection ; rectum carcinoma
    Abstract: Surgical resected tumours are often stored for hours in the clinic upon transfer to the bench leading to apoptosis of tumour cells making them no longer suitable for molecular analysis and diagnostic procedures. The way out of this problem may be a new oxygen-enriched solution (OES). We tested this agent using surgical resections of carcinomas of lung, rectum and pancreas. Immediately after resection, one part of each individual tumour was stored in PBS and the other part in OES, and the content of viable or dead cells was determined by trypan blue exclusion and MTT-assay. We found that OES keeps tumour cells up to 3 days and longer more viable than PBS and reduces the percentage of dead cells without inducing therapy resistance and affecting the outcome of experimental procedures. Thus, storing freshly resected tumours in OES may save time for tumour transfer and initiation of experiments
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16596178
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  • 4
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; IN-VITRO ; tumor ; AGENTS ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; INHIBITION ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; VIVO ; SAMPLES ; TUMORS ; TIME ; PATIENT ; INDUCTION ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; treatment ; PROGRESSION ; resistance ; INDUCED APOPTOSIS ; PLASMA ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; chemotherapy ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; DERIVATIVES ; HEPATOMA-CELLS ; EPITHELIAL-CELLS ; CARCINOMAS ; PHARMACOKINETICS ; AGENT ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; RE ; EX-VIVO ; SOLID TUMORS ; MEDIATED APOPTOSIS ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; LEVEL ; analysis ; methods ; PLASMA-LEVELS ; dexamethasone ; PROMOTION ; USA ; GLUCOCORTICOIDS ; prospective ; in vivo ; clinical study
    Abstract: Background: Glucocorticoids have been used widely in conjunction with cancer therapy due to their ability to induce apoptosis in hematological cells and to prevent nausea and emesis. However, recent data including ours, suggest induction of therapy resistance by glucocorticoids in solid tumors, although it is unclear whether this happens only in few carcinomas or is a more common cell type specific phenomenon. Material and Methods: We performed an overall statistical analysis of our new and recent data obtained with 157 tumor probes evaluated in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The effect of glucocorticoids on apoptosis, viability and cell cycle progression under diverse clinically important questions was examined. Results: New in vivo results demonstrate glucocorticoid - induced chemotherapy resistance in xenografted prostate cancer. In an overall statistical analysis we found glucocorticoid - induced resistance in 89% of 157 analysed tumor samples. Resistance is common for several cytotoxic treatments and for several glucocorticoid - derivatives and due to an inhibition of apoptosis, promotion of viability and cell cycle progression. Resistance occurred at clinically achievable peak plasma levels of patients under anti - emetic glucocorticoid therapy and below, lasted for a long time, after one single dose, but was reversible upon removal of glucocorticoids. Two nonsteroidal alternative anti - emetic agents did not counteract anticancer treatment and may be sufficient to replace gluco corticoids in cotreatment of carcinoma patients. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the need for prospective clinical studies as well as for detailed mechanistic studies of GC - induced cell - type specific pro - and anti - apoptotic signalling
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17224649
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  • 5
    Keywords: CANCER ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; LUNG ; neoplasms ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; TUMORS ; SURGERY ; PATIENT ; kidney ; EXPERIENCE ; RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION ; RESECTION ; FEASIBILITY ; RADIO-FREQUENCY ABLATION ; THERMAL ABLATION ; surgical resection ; CANDIDATES ; INITIAL-EXPERIENCE ; PULMONARY METASTASES
    Abstract: Background. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has received high interest in the treatment of primary and secondary lung neoplasms. Clinical experience continues to accumulate; however, the biologic effects after ablation remain poorly understood. This study evaluated the safety and feasibility of RFA in an open thoracotomy setting and investigated the early histopathologic changes after RFA. Methods. The study enrolled 18 subjects with multiple pulmonary metastases from a solid primary tumor. RFA was performed at an open thoracotomy setting, followed by wedge resection of the ablated tumor. Results. No intraoperative complications during the RFA procedure occurred. Immunostaining revealed a complete ablation in 7 patients (39%). The grade of ablation was greater than 90% in 9 patients (50%), and less than 90% in 2 (11%). No correlation was found between the grade of ablation and the applied energy and the diameter of the lesion. Conclusions. Intraoperative RFA in an open thoracotomy setting appears to be a safe and feasible technique. Tumor devitalization sufficient for local control was achieved in 89% in our series. Ablation was incomplete in 11%, subject to the methods used in this study. This result appears to be inferior to metastasectomy by surgical resection
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19161742
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  • 6
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; carcinoma ; CELL ; LUNG ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; METABOLISM ; CARCINOGENESIS ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; AGE ; DNA-REPAIR ; smoking ; ADHESION ; CELL-ADHESION ; inflammation ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; VARIANT ; CANDIDATE GENES ; METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; INCREASED RISK ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; CHINESE POPULATION ; XUAN-WEI ; METHYLENE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE REDUCTASE ; GENE POLYMORPHISMS ; Genetic ; CENTRAL-EUROPE ; SEQUENCE VARIANTS
    Abstract: Background. Analysis of candidate genes in individual studies has had only limited success in identifying particular gene variants that are conclusively associated with lung cancer risk. In the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), we conducted a coordinated genotyping study of 10 common variants selected because of their prior evidence of an association with lung cancer. These variants belonged to candidate genes from different cancer-related pathways including inflammation (IL1B), folate metabolism (MTHFR), regulatory function (AKAP9 and CAMKK1), cell adhesion (SEZL6) and apoptosis (FAS, FASL, TP53, TP53BP1 and BAT3). Methods. Genotype data from 15 ILCCO case-control studies were available for a total of 8431 lung cancer cases and 11 072 controls of European descent and Asian ethnic groups. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each variant and lung cancer risk. Results. Only the association between a non-synonymous variant of TP53BP1 (rs560191) and lung cancer risk was significant (OR = 0.91, P = 0.002). This association was more striking for squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 0.86, P = 6 x 10(-4)). No heterogeneity by center, ethnicity, smoking status, age group or sex was observed. In order to confirm this association, we included results for this variant from a set of independent studies (9966 cases/11 722 controls) and we reported similar results. When combining all these studies together, we reported an overall OR = 0.93 (0.89-0.97) (P = 0.001). This association was significant only for squamous cell carcinoma [OR = 0.89 (0.85-0.95), P = 1 x 10(-4)]. Conclusion. This study suggests that rs560191 is associated to lung cancer risk and further highlights the value of consortia in replicating or refuting published genetic associations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20106900
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  • 7
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; lung cancer ; LUNG-CANCER ; SYSTEM ; TISSUE ; prognosis ; T-CELLS ; PROGRESSION ; LYMPHOCYTES ; PERIPHERAL-BLOOD ; microenvironment ; lymph nodes ; TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR FOXP3 ; tumor microenvironment ; NK-CELLS ; Foxp3(+) Tregs
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: : Regulatory T cells (Tregs) can play a key role in suppressing T-cell-mediated immunity in patients with cancer. In this study, the immune cell composition of the lung tissue and draining lymph nodes from patients with non-small cell lung cancer was analyzed. METHODS: : Samples (solid tumor, tumor border, and tumor-free lung tissue, as well as intrapulmonal N1 and mediastinal N2 lymph nodes) from 30 patients subjected to curative resection were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. RESULTS: : Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of Foxp3 Tregs in tumor-infiltrated lung tissue, scattered Tregs in tumor-free lung samples, and a large number of these cells in metastatic lymph nodes. Using flow cytometry, we observed a significant enhancement of CD4 T cells and Foxp3 Tregs in the tumor center of adenocarcinoma samples, when compared with tumor-free lung tissues and tumor periphery. This enrichment was associated with a drastic decrease in natural killer cell amounts. Metastatic lymph nodes also showed higher Treg numbers than tumor-free ones in patients with lung adenocarcinomas. In contrast, patients with squamous cell carcinomas displayed less profound accumulation of Tregs. CONCLUSION: : Accumulation of Tregs in the center of lung tumors and in metastatic lymph nodes in combination with a decrease in the natural killer cell numbers suggests a critical role of Treg in the formation of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Therefore, lung cancer immunotherapy may be improved by a specific Treg elimination or suppression.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21258248
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  • 8
    Keywords: GENE-EXPRESSION ; IN-SITU ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; STEM-CELLS ; CARCINOMAS ; CHROMOSOMAL ALTERATIONS ; CLONAL EVOLUTION ; ADENOCARCINOMA PATIENTS ; CD117 IMMUNOREACTIVITY ; FREE DEFINED MEDIUM
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cell lines play an important role for studying tumor biology and novel therapeutic agents. Particularly in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) the availability of cell lines is limited and knowledge about their representativeness for corresponding tumor tissue is scanty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established three novel SCC cell lines from fresh tumor tissue of 28 donors, including 8 SCC. Two cell lines were derived from different localizations of the same donor, i.e. primary tumor and lymph node metastasis. This represents a so far unique combination in lung cancer. The genotypes, gene expression profiles and mutational status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) and Kirsten rat sarcoma (k-ras) of the cell lines and their corresponding tumor tissue were analyzed and compared. Moreover, the molecular characteristics were related to functional properties of the cell lines. Those comprised proliferation, motility and chemosensitivity. The cell lines were authenticated by single tandem repeat DNA typing. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in a murine xenograft model. RESULTS: Comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed essential genetic similarities between the cell lines and their corresponding tumor tissue, but indicated also some genetic evolution and clonal selection. EGF-R or k-ras mutations were not detected. Gene expression profiling showed various differences between tumor tissue and cell lines affecting gene clusters associated with immune response, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and angiogenesis. However, there were also common gene expression patterns reflecting the relationship between cell lines and their corresponding tumor tissue. Moreover, the molecular characteristics of the tumor tissue and the descendent cell line were associated with functional properties of the latter. All cell lines showed a unique, heterozygous human DNA profile and one cell line displayed rapid tumor formation in mice. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we demonstrate that cell lines represent a useful in vitro system for studying basic mechanisms in lung cancer, but cover only distinct molecular characteristics of the original tumor. Moreover, we present three novel, comprehensively characterized SCC cell lines.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21684623
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  • 9
    Keywords: DISEASE ; POPULATION ; GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; ACID ; WOMEN ; REGION ; CARCINOGENS ; DNA-ADDUCTS ; VARIANT
    Abstract: MPO participates in the metabolic activation of tobacco carcinogens such as PAHs. A frequent MPO -463 G--〉A polymorphism in the promoter region reduces MPO transcription and has been correlated with 〉4-fold lower benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct levels in the skin of coal tar-treated patients. Four of 7 case-control studies found significantly reduced lung cancer risk associated with the A allele. Due to their different etiologies, we examined whether the MPO genotype affects histologic lung cancer types differentially. A case-control study was conducted in 625 ever-smoking lung cancer patients, including 228 adenocarcinomas, 224 SCCs, 135 SCLCs and 340 ever-smoking hospital controls. MPO genotyping was performed by capillary PCR followed by fluorescence-based melting curve analysis. Combining the MPO -463 (G/A+A/A) genotypes, a protective effect approaching significance (OR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.01) was observed when comparing all lung cancer cases to controls. Among histologic types of lung cancer, a weak protective effect was found for both adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.81, CI 0.55-1.19) and SCC (OR = 0.82, CI 0.56-1.21); a stronger and significant effect was found for SCLC (OR = 0.58, CI 0.36-0.95; p = 0.029). Our results also suggest that the MPO genotype varies among inflammatory nonmalignant lung diseases. In conclusion, our results emphasize the need for a separate analysis of lung cancer histologic types and an adjustment for inflammatory nonmalignant lung diseases in future MPO-related studies. We confirm that the MPO -463 A variant affords a protective effect against lung cancer risk in smokers, which was strongest for SCLC patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12432558
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  • 10
    Keywords: LUNG-CANCER ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENES ; GENOME ; SEQUENCE ; MASS-SPECTROMETRY ; NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE-RECEPTORS ; CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCUS ; 15Q25.1
    Abstract: Genome-wide association studies have highlighted three major lung cancer susceptibility regions at 15q25.1, 5p15.33 and 6p21.33. To gain insight into the possible mechanistic relevance of the genes in these regions, we investigated the regulation of candidate susceptibility gene expression by epigenetic alterations in healthy and lung tumor tissues. For genes up or downregulated in lung tumors, the influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation was investigated and in vitro studies were performed. We analyzed 394 CpG units within 19 CpG islands in the susceptibility regions in a screening set of 34 patients. Significant findings were validated in an independent patient set (n=50) with available DNA and RNA. The most consistent overall DNA methylation difference between tumor and adjacent normal tissue on 15q25 was tumor hypomethylation in the promoter region of CHRNB4 with a median difference of 8% (P〈0.001), which resulted in overexpression of the transcript in tumors (P〈0.001). Confirming previous studies, we also found hypermethylation in CHRNA3 and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) with significant expression changes. Decitabine treatment of H1299 cells resulted in reduced methylation levels in gene promoters, elevated transcript levels of CHRNB4 and CHRNA3, and a slight downregulation of TERT demonstrating epigenetic regulation of lung cancer cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs421629 on 5p15.33 and rs1948, rs660652, rs8040868 and rs2036527 on 15q25.1, previously identified as lung cancer risk or nicotine-addiction modifiers, were associated with tumor DNA methylation levels in the promoters of TERT and CHRNB4 (P〈0.001), respectively, in two independent sample sets (n=82; n=150). In addition, CHRNB4 knockdown in two different cell lines (A549 and H1299) resulted in reduced proliferation (P(A549)〈0.05;P(H1299)〈0.001) and propensity to form colonies in H1299 cells. These results suggest epigenetic deregulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit (nAChR) genes which in the case of CHRNB4 is strongly associated with genetic lung cancer susceptibility variants and a functional impact on tumorigenic potential.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 September 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.344.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22945651
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