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  • DKFZ Publication Database  (4)
  • 1
    Keywords: GROWTH ; IRRADIATION ; radiotherapy ; carcinoma ; THERAPY ; DEPENDENCE ; ACCELERATED ELECTRONS ; FADU
    Abstract: The long-term goal to integrate laser-based particle accelerators into radiotherapy clinics not only requires technological development of high-intensity lasers and new techniques for beam detection and dose delivery, but also characterization of the biological consequences of this new particle beam quality, i.e. ultra-short, ultra-intense pulses. In the present work, we describe successful in vivo experiments with laser-driven electron pulses by utilization of a small tumour model on the mouse ear for the human squamous cell carcinoma model FaDu. The already established in vitro irradiation technology at the laser system JETI was further enhanced for 3D tumour irradiation in vivo in terms of beam transport, beam monitoring, dose delivery and dosimetry in order to precisely apply a prescribed dose to each tumour in full-scale radiobiological experiments. Tumour growth delay was determined after irradiation with doses of 3 and 6 Gy by laser-accelerated electrons. Reference irradiation was performed with continuous electron beams at a clinical linear accelerator in order to both validate the dedicated dosimetry employed for laser-accelerated JETI electrons and above all review the biological results. No significant difference in radiation-induced tumour growth delay was revealed for the two investigated electron beams. These data provide evidence that the ultra-high dose rate generated by laser acceleration does not impact the biological effectiveness of the particles.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25600561
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  • 2
    Keywords: IRRADIATION ; carcinoma ; radiation ; CANCER-CELLS ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; RELATIVE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS ; X-RAY ; GAMMA-H2AX FOCI ; LASER-ACCELERATED ELECTRONS ; ENERGY-DEPENDENCE
    Abstract: PURPOSE: In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. RESULTS: The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25968557
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  • 3
    Abstract: Proton beams may provide superior dose-conformity in radiation therapy. However, the large sizes and costs limit the widespread use of proton therapy (PT). The recent progress in proton acceleration via high-power laser systems has made it a compelling alternative to conventional accelerators, as it could potentially reduce the overall size and cost of the PT facilities. However, the laser-accelerated beams exhibit different characteristics than conventionally accelerated beams, i.e. very intense proton bunches with large divergences and broad-energy spectra. For the application of laser-driven beams in PT, new solutions for beam transport, such as beam capture, integrated energy selection, beam shaping and delivery systems are required due to the specific beam parameters. The generation of these beams are limited by the low repetition rate of high-power lasers and this limitation would require alternative solutions for tumour irradiation which can efficiently utilize the available high proton fluence and broad-energy spectra per proton bunch to keep treatment times short. This demands new dose delivery system and irradiation field formation schemes. In this paper, we present a multi-functional light-weight and compact proton gantry design for laser-driven sources based on iron-less pulsed high-field magnets. This achromatic design includes improved beam capturing and energy selection systems, with a novel beam shaping and dose delivery system, so-called ELPIS. ELPIS system utilizes magnetic fields, instead of physical scatterers, for broadening the spot-size of broad-energetic beams while capable of simultaneously scanning them in lateral directions. To investigate the clinical feasibility of this gantry design, we conducted a treatment planning study with a 3D treatment planning system augmented for the pulsed beams with optimizable broad-energetic widths and selectable beam spot sizes. High quality treatment plans could be achieved with such unconventional beam parameters, deliverable via the presented gantry and ELPIS dose delivery system. The conventional PT gantries are huge and require large space for the gantry to rotate the beam around the patient, which could be reduced up to 4 times with the presented pulse powered gantry system. The further developments in the next generation petawatt laser systems and laser-targets are crucial to reach higher proton energies. However, if proton energies required for therapy applications are reached it could be possible in future to reduce the footprint of the PT facilities, without compromising on clinical standards.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28609301
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  • 4
    Abstract: Only few ten radiotherapy facilities worldwide provide ion beams, in spite of their physical advantage of better achievable tumor conformity of the dose compared to conventional photon beams. Since, mainly the large size and high costs hinder their wider spread, great efforts are ongoing to develop more compact ion therapy facilities. One promising approach for smaller facilities is the acceleration of ions on micrometre scale by high intensity lasers. Laser accelerators deliver pulsed beams with a low pulse repetition rate, but a high number of ions per pulse, broad energy spectra and high divergences. A clinical use of a laser based ion beam facility requires not only a laser accelerator providing beams of therapeutic quality, but also new approaches for beam transport, dosimetric control and tumor conformal dose delivery procedure together with the knowledge of the radiobiological effectiveness of laser-driven beams. Over the last decade research was mainly focused on protons and progress was achieved in all important challenges. Although currently the maximum proton energy is not yet high enough for patient irradiation, suggestions and solutions have been reported for compact beam transport and dose delivery procedures, respectively, as well as for precise dosimetric control. Radiobiological in vitro and in vivo studies show no indications of an altered biological effectiveness of laser-driven beams. Laser based facilities will hardly improve the availability of ion beams for patient treatment in the next decade. Nevertheless, there are possibilities for a need of laser based therapy facilities in future.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28828925
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